I am grateful to Adele Hebert for pointing out to me several of these similarities between Rahab and Lydia.
Rahab in the Old Testament, and Lydia in the New, are separated by thousands of years and by thousands of miles. Despite different cultures and different circumstances, there are some intriguing similarities and comparisons between these two women who are mentioned in the pages of Scripture.
Rahab was an independent business woman. As well as being an innkeeper, it seems that Rahab worked with flax (Josh 2:6). Working and weaving with flax was labour intensive, but it was an honourable trade.
Lydia was also an independent business woman, and was also involved with textiles. Lydia was a dealer of expensive purple cloth (Acts 16:14).
Rahab wasn’t married, but she did have a family – a father, mother, brothers and sisters. Rahab cared for her family and they were saved by her actions (Josh 2:13).
There is no mention that Lydia was married, but she was the mistress of her own household. The other members of her household probably included some family members as well as slaves that worked in the business. Following Lydia’s lead, all of her household were saved (Acts 16:15).
Rahab was the first Gentile to join the community of Israel in the Promised Land, and God used her to play a pivotal role in helping Israel have the faith to enter the Promised Land and conquer Jericho (Josh 2:11 cf 2:24).
Lydia was also a Gentile and was the first Christian convert in Europe. God used Lydia to play a pivotal role in establishing the first church in Europe, at Philippi.
Faith and Action
Before the spies arrived at her door, Rahab had already heard about the God of Israel, and God had caused Rahab to have faith in him. She was ready to make a life-changing commitment to the God of Israel and put her faith into action. God had strategically provided the Israeli spies with a courageous ally in Rahab.
Before Paul and Silas arrived at Philippi with the Good News about Jesus, Lydia had already accepted the Jewish faith. In Acts 16:14 Lydia is referred to as “a worshipper of God”. This expression means that she was a Gentile convert to Judaism. Lydia was with other women at a Jewish place of prayer (i.e. a synagogue) when Paul found them and told them about Jesus. “The Lord opened her heart” to Paul’s message (Acts 16:14b). Lydia listened and God gave her faith – faith that she put into action by persuading Paul and Silas to stay in her home (Acts 16:15, 40).
Rahab seems to have been the mistress of her own home and she is honoured by the Jews for her hospitality (cf James 2:24-26). She willingly risked her life by welcoming, sheltering and protecting the two spies in her home.
Lydia was the mistress of her own home and she welcomed the two missionaries, Paul and Silas, into her home (Acts 16:15, 40). It is likely that the first Christian congregation in Philippi continued to meet in Lydia’s home, probably led by Lydia, when Paul and Silas left to continue their mission elsewhere.
Rahab wanted salvation for her entire household and she cleverly secured this by making a deal with the spies (Josh 2:12-14; 6:17, 22-23).
… Joshua spared Rahab the prostitute, with her family and all who belonged to her, because she hid the men Joshua had sent as spies to Jericho—and she lives among the Israelites to this day. Joshua 6:25
Rahab later married Salmon. They had a son called Boaz who married another Gentile woman – Ruth. Both Rahab and Ruth are ancestors of Jesus (Mat 1:5).
Because of Lydia’s faith, her whole household was saved and baptised. Lydia probably became the first house church leader in all of Europe. Paul later wrote to the Philippian church and referred back to their first day.
In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel from the first day until now, being confident of this, that he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus. Philippians 1:4-6
God used these two faith-filled women for his purposes – to bless the community of his people. God could have chosen men, but in these cases he chose women. Perhaps he saw in these two women a readiness for true faith and action. God is still choosing to use faith-filled women who are courageous, capable, and ready to bless his people.
 Female inn keepers traditionally provided more than just food, drink and a place to sleep.
 If Lydia didn’t lead the fledgling church, who did? Another member of her household? The unnamed jailor? Or a member of his household? Lydia is the only Philippian convert who is named, and we know that the first few meetings of the Philippian church were held in her home, so she seems to be the most likely person to have led or coordinated the first congregation at Philippi. Some speculate that “Lydia” was a kind of nickname showing her place of origin but that her real name may have been Euodia or Syntyche (Philippians 4:2).
 Rahab was the great grandmother of King David; Ruth was the grandmother of King David (Mat 1:5-6).
Working Women in the New Testament (More on Lydia in this article.)
Euodia and Syntyche: Women Church Leaders at Philippi
The Women who Protected Moses
Martha, Mary and Lazarus of Bethany
Faith, Belief, Trust, and Salvation
Saving Faith in Action: James 2:14-26
All Encompassing Faith
Unbelief: The Ultimate Sin