Proving that Jesus is God from Old Testament Scripture

This article is also available in Urdu.

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When reading the New Testament it seems so obvious at times that Jesus is God and equal with the Father.[1]  But in other passages Jesus’ full divinity is more ambiguous.  I believe that conclusive proof of Jesus’ full divinity can be seen when we compare certain Old Testament verses with corresponding New Testament verses.  The key to this is recognising God’s Name in Scripture.

There is only one true, supreme God – the  God of the Bible – and his Name is YHWH.  YHWH is usually translated as LORD (all capital letters) in English translations of the Old Testament.  Most good Bible versions explain this translation in their preface. Check it out.

Out of reverence for the holiness of God, the Jews stopped saying God’s Name a couple of hundred years BC, so the correct pronunciation of YHWH is uncertain.[2]  The Hebrew language does not contain vowels, but we can ascertain that the first syllable of God’s Name is probably pronounced “Yah” because it is found in the word Hallelujah (or Halleluyah).  Hallelujah means “Praise the LORD” or, more correctly, “Praise YHWH”.  Some Christians pronounce YHWH as “Yahweh”.[3]

Yahweh means: “I Am who I Am.”  God explained his Name to Moses during the burning bush encounter when God commissioned Moses to free Israel from Egyptian bondage (Exodus 3:13-15).  God’s Name, the “I Am”, gives a sense of the enigmatic, transcendent and eternal nature of God (Cf Revelation 1:8).

Three infinite and eternal persons belong to this Godhead called Yahweh: (1) the Father, (2) the Son, Jesus Christ, and (3) the Holy Spirit. These three persons are bound closely together in unity of power and purpose and are often referred to as the Trinity.  Yahweh is one God made up of three persons.

The fact that Jesus Christ is Yahweh can be determined by comparing the following Old Testament verses with the corresponding New Testament verses.

Isaiah 40:3 speaks about preparing the way for the LORD (Yahweh).  When we compare this verse with Mark 1:3 we see that Jesus is the LORD who had the way prepared for him by John the Baptist.

In Joel 2:32a it says that whoever calls upon the Name of the LORD (Yahweh) will be saved.  This verse is quoted by Peter in Acts 2:21, and by Paul in Romans 10:13.  Both apostles are clearly referring to Jesus as the LORD.

In Isaiah 6:1-10 we read about the marvelous vision that Isaiah had revealing the glory of the LORD (Yahweh).  John tells us in John 12:40-41 that this vision revealed the glory of Jesus.

In Isaiah 44:6, the LORD (Yahweh) refers to himself as “the First and the Last”.  In Revelation 1:8 and 17, Jesus similarly refers to himself as “the Alpha and the Omega” and “the First and the Last”.

In Zechariah 12:10 the LORD (Yahweh) is speaking and says that, “they will look on Me whom they have pierced.”[4] This is obviously Jesus speaking (Psalm 22:16; John 19:34).  This passage from Zechariah appears again in Revelation 1:7b and is clearly about Jesus Christ.

As Yahweh (along with the Father and the Holy Spirit) Jesus is eternal, having all the qualities and attributes of God.  Even on earth, in human form, Jesus was the image of the invisible God, and the exact representation of God’s nature (Colossians 1:15; Hebrews 1:3).  Jesus is not some sort of demigod; rather, the fullness of deity (“God-ness”) dwells in him  in bodily form (Colossians 2:9).  Jesus Christ, born of the virgin Mary, was fully man and fully God, having both a human and divine nature at the same time.

As eternal God, Jesus Christ existed before he came to earth as a human baby.  He existed before the creation of the earth.  In fact, Jesus was instrumental in its creation.  The Bible says that all things were created by Him, and that nothing was made without Him (John 1:1-3; Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:2).   Jesus is not a created being himself.

The Scriptures teach us that there is only one God and we are commanded that we should worship no other gods (Exodus 20:3).  From Scripture we can see that Jesus Christ is worshipped eternally, further proving his deity and place in the Godhead (Philippians 2:10-11; Revelation 5:9-14).

As wonderful as Yahweh’s Name is,[5] there is a name which has even greater significance and importance:

Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him a name which is above every name; that at the name of Jesus  every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father.  Philippians 2:9-11.

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Endnotes

[1] Jesus’ disciples, those closest to him, testified that Jesus is God. Peter writes “our God and Saviour, Jesus Christ” in 2 Peter 1:1; Thomas addresses Jesus as “My Lord and my God!” in John 20:28; and  John called the Word/Jesus, “God” in John 1:1.  Also, the apostle Paul calls Jesus “the great God and Saviour” in Titus 2:13

[2] King David had no problem with declaring the Name of God.  He uses it frequently in his Psalms.  In Psalm 8:1 & 9 he says (sings), “O Yahweh, our Lord, how majestic is your Name in all the earth!”
Instead of saying God’s Name, many Jews replace YHWH with “Ha’Shem” when reading from Hebrew scripture aloud.  Ha’Shem means “the Name” in Hebrew.

[3] “Jehovah” is another way of saying God’s Name and appeared in old English translations of the Old Testament; but this pronunciation has fallen out of favour because it is considered inaccurate by some.

[4] Some paraphrases, such as the Good News Bible and the Living Bible, do not translate this verse accurately.

[5] “O LORD (Yahweh), our Lord (Adonai), how majestic is your Name in all the earth!”  Psalm 8:1 & 9.

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Posted July 17th, 2009 . Categories/Tags: Christian Theology, Christology, ,

68 comments on “Proving that Jesus is God from Old Testament Scripture

  1. Soul Searching says:

    I have questions, If Jesus is God, why he let the people of Israel to crucify him in order for God himself forgave the sins of our forefathers? Does God cannot forgive somebody who is sincerely asking for repentance? If Jesus was destined to die in a cross, why he asked God to save him from those people who wanted to harm him? What is the particular or exact message of Jesus to people, is it to believe in One God or to worship him equally to One God?Is there any one common message given to all prophets? Please give me certain answers. Hoping these questions will be answered in the purpose of soul searching. Thank you.

    • Marg says:

      Hi SS,

      These are excellent questions but to respond to each of them will take some time, so I will begin by answering your first question, and touch on answering some other questions.

      God did not let the people of Israel crucify Jesus. It was part of a plan. Jesus foretold of his suffering and death several times, as is recorded in the gospels. In John’s gospel, Jesus speaks about his “hour” that has not yet come in several verses, until his hour then did in fact come. Jesus death and resurrection was planned and timed. Jesus’s life was preserved from harm until the right time for his crucifixion.

      Jesus’ resurrection was also part of the plan. Jesus said that he has the power/authority to lay down his life and take it back up (John 10:17-18). In Romans 8:11 it says that the Spirit raised Jesus from death. In other verses it seems that the resurrection was the work of the Father. Jesus’ resurrection is an example of the Trinity working together.

      The Old Testament repeatedly points to a blood sacrifice as the way to atone for sin. But these sacrifices only covered sin, they did not remove sin.

      “For what the [Old Testament] Law could not do, weak as it was through the flesh, God did: sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and as an offering for sin, He condemned sin in the flesh, so that the requirement of the Law might be fulfilled in us.” Romans 8:3-4

      Other Old Testament verses point to a Saviour who will make this ultimate sacrifice.

      The ultimate message is about believing or trusting in Jesus as Saviour and Lord (John 3:16). According to the New Testament, unbelief is the sin that brings condemnation and death.

      Here are Jesus’ words on this topic: “For God so loved the world that he gave his only Son, so that everyone who believes in him may not perish but may have eternal life. Indeed, God did not send the Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him. Those who believe in him are not condemned; but those who do not believe are condemned already, because they have not believed in the name of the only Son of God.” John 3:16-18

      I hope this helps as a start.

      You might want to read the whole of Romans chapter 8 here: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Romans+8&version=NASB
      And here is a shorter reading taken from John chapter 10: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John+10%3A11-18&version=NASB

      • Soul Searching says:

        Hello Ms Marg,

        Thank you for your replies,truly appreciated. I have read about the Gospel of Barnabas. Why such Gospel are trying not to reveal, why it kept hidden as much as possible. I’ve also discovered that after the death of Jesus son of Mary, 270 different version of Bibles were known. If Law of God is the Creator, the statements of the book must be came from God Himself, but if the Law of God has been altered by humans, is it right to call it Law of God or both Law of God and humans? I’m just worried why there are different versions of bibles and sects. A religion is something that must bring unity among us regardless of cultures and races. Does this conflict arise because our bibles have been altered or mixed with human thoughts? Please give me answers, I just want to know the truth. Thank you.

        • Marg says:

          Did you find Romans 8 and John 10 helpful? These passages may answer some of your questions.

          I’ll answer you latest questions later today.

          • Soul Searching says:

            Romans 8. 14 For all who are being led by the Spirit of God, these are sons of God.15 For you have not received a spirit of slavery [g]leading to fear again, but you have received [h]a spirit of adoption as sons by which we cry out, “Abba! Father!” 16 The Spirit Himself testifies with our spirit that we are children of God, 17 and if children, heirs also, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him so that we may also be glorified with Him.
            What does this mean, that those who believe in God can be also considered as sons of God?

          • Soul Searching says:

            ‘And there is no God else beside Me; a just God and a Savior; there is none beside Me. Look to Me, and be saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is none else.’ (Isaiah 45:21-22, Jonah 3:5-10)
            The messages of God shall not put confusions to human mind. If He clearly stated that There is No God Beside Him, He meant that He is One. And there is no clear verses stating that God has trinity, only we just interpret it according to some verses. Does being Sons of God is similar with Servant of God? In Hebrew, they believe that God is One, no wife nor children. If the Original bible written in Hebrew, does this mean that the original bible states that God is One and that those who have faith with God are called the sons of God as servants of God? God is something eternal, no start and has no ending. When He created the earth and the whole universe, He must not get tired because He is the most powerful. He can do all the impossible, He will not let His creations to be equally with Him because since God is the Creator, does it make it a sense that He can also destroy His creations if He wants it and create a new one who can obey Him?

  2. Marg says:

    In reply to your more recent questions/comments:
    Yes, absolutely, every person who makes the decision to follow Jesus, and thus has been regenerated by his Holy Spirit, has been adopted as a child of God. Adoption is one of the aspects of salvation.

    “But as many as received [Jesus], to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.” John 1:12-13
    [More on this here.]

    God – YHWH – is eternal and all powerful. Even in the Old Testament we see some evidence of his plurality. And in my article above you can see how Jesus fulfills aspects of YHWH’s divinity, so to speak.

  3. Marg says:

    In answer to your question about the Bible.

    The first books of the New Testament were written about 50-54AD, some of the later books were written about 90-100AD. They were written by different people, living in different places, at different times. They were gradually collated by the church. One of the first collections recorded is known as the Muratorian canon.

    As well as the 27 books that were included in the New Testament there were many other books and letters written by Christians that were not included in the canon of Scripture. Even though these other books are not regarded as Holy Scripture they are very useful to help our understanding of Christian thought and practice in the first few centuries of the church. However, most Christians, myself included, reject concepts that are not articulated in the canonical literature.

    I have read many early Christian works that didn’t make it into the New Testament, and, while I enjoy many of them, I can see why they weren’t accepted in the New Testament. They lack spiritual authority and some are too fanciful and lack sound teaching.

    Today there are thousands of translations of the Bible, but they are all derived from just a few critical editions of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. A translation does not alter the meaning, it just translates.

    God has always used people as mediators of his message, and he still does.

    More on this here: http://newlife.id.au/christian-theology/the-authority-and-authenticity-of-nt-scripture/

  4. Marg says:

    I do not think religion unites people. This is demonstrated by the fact that every major religion has many different denominations or factions or sects. Religions have hurt people, and many atrocities have been done in the name of religion. I have no doubt that God is completely against the idea of harming people in his name.

    For Christians, it is the person of Jesus who unites us, not any religion. I work every day with Christians who belong to a variety of different Christian denominations, and we all respect each other and work together very well.

    Just like each of our children are different, have different strengths, and express their love for their parents differently, different denominations have different expressions of worship and different doctrines that they focus on. But all true Christians and churches focus on the person of Jesus.

  5. Soul Searching says:

    Ms Marg,
    Thank you again for your replies. I keep on seeking for the truth because I believe that God never intend to put confusions to human minds, it is human who creates confusion because of lack of understanding and determination to seek for the purpose of existence. The kindness of man depends on himself. God created us with free will, though He predetermined our destiny, but not necessarily He is approving the decision from the choices He is giving to us. I believe that God is the most Justified, that He will not create somebody who is better from each of us, that He will not create us as a sinner from the beginning because if He does, what is the purpose of providing us a Free will or the purpose of obeying His Law if we are already a sinner since we’re born? I’m also confuse why people able to put or select verses from the Old testament to make a new one? On my point of view, the original scriptures of God must not alter by any human thoughts because if we do, we are creating the Law which might be more comfortable to us but most probably interfering some of the Law of God bestowed upon us through His messengers and prophets.
    I have some more verses in the bible that put me into confusion if we are truly interpret the Law of God right.

    That God is not a man
    ‘God is not a man’ (Numbers 23:19)
    ‘For I am God, and not man’ (Hosea 11:9)

    But bible called Jesus as man
    ‘a man who has told you the truth’ (John 8:40)
    ‘Jesus the Nazarene, a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know.’ (Acts 2:22)
    ‘He will judge the world in righteousness through a man whom He has appointed’ (Acts 17:31)
    ‘the man Christ Jesus’ (Tim. 2:5)

    That God is not a son of man
    ‘God is not a man nor a son of man’ (Numbers 23:19)

    The Bible often calls Jesus ‘a son of man’ or ‘the son of man.’
    ‘so will the son of man be’ (Matthew 12:40)
    ‘For the son of man is going to come’ (Matthew 16:27)
    ‘until they see the son of man coming in His kingdom.’ (Matthew 28)
    ‘But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority’ (Mark 2:10)
    ‘because he is the son of man’ (John 5:27)
    In the Hebrew scriptures, the ‘son of man’ is also used many times speaking of people (Job 25:6; Psalm 80:17; 144:3; Ezekiel 2:1; 2:3; 2:6-8; 3:1-3).

    That even Jesus, denied he is a God
    Jesus spoke to a man who had called him ‘good,’ asking him, ‘Why do you call me good? No one is good except God alone.’ (Luke 18:19)
    And he said to him, ‘Why are you asking me about what is good? There is only One who is good; but if you wish to enter into life, keep the commandments.’ (Matthew 19:17)

    Or even God is greater than Jesus according to Bible
    ‘My Father is greater than I’ (John 14:28)
    ‘My father is greater than all.’ (John 10:29)

    That he never instructed his disciples to worship him, Jesus himself but the Father alone

    ‘When you pray, say Our Father which art in heaven.’ (Luke 11:2)

    ‘In that day, you shall ask me nothing. Whatsoever you ask of the Father in my name.’ (John 16:23)

    ‘The hour cometh and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth; for the Father seeketh such to worship him.’ (John 4:23)

    That even Jesus worshiped One God

    ‘that they might know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent.’ (John 17:3)

    ‘he continued all night in prayer to God.’ (Luke 6:12)
    ‘Just as the son of man did not come to be served, but to serve’ (Matthew 20:28)

    And Pray through this manner
    ‘he fell with his face to the ground and prayed, ‘My Father’ (Matthew 26:39)

    ‘During the days of Jesus’ life on earth, he offered up prayers and petitions with loud cries and tears to the one who could save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission.’ (Hebrews 5:7)

    That Jesus did not put himself equally with God
    and that God performed miracles through Jesus & Jesus was limited in what he could do:

    ‘But when the crowds saw this, they were awestruck, and glorified God, who had given such authority to men.’ (Matt. 9:8)

    ‘a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst.’ (Acts 2:22)

    ‘he went about doing good and healing all who were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him.’ (Acts 10:38)

    That even Jesus has limited performing miracles, but God is the most powerful so He must not have limits or get tired to give us His mercy
    One time when Jesus tried to heal a blind man, the man was not healed after the first attempt, and Jesus had to try a second time (Mark 8:22-26).
    ‘At once Jesus realized that power had gone out from him. He turned around in the crowd and asked, ‘Who touched my clothes?’ (Mark 5:30)

    ‘He could not do any miracles there, except lay his hands on a few sick people and heal them.’ (Mark 6:5)

    That in time of weakness, God sent Jesus angels to strengthen him
    ‘An angel from heaven appeared to him and strengthened him – in the garden of Gethsemane’ (Luke 22:43)

    ‘Then the devil left him; and behold, angels came and began to minister to Him’ (Mark. 1:13)

    ‘And he was in the wilderness forty days being tempted by Satan; and he was with the wild beasts, and the angels were ministering to him.’ (Mark 1:13)

    That Jesus wanted God’s will to be done
    ‘not my will but Yours be done.’ (Luke 22:42)

    ‘I do not seek my own will, but the will of Him who sent me.’ (John 5:30)

    ‘For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of Him that sent me.’ (John 6:38)

    That he regard himself and God as two different entities, not as One God
    ‘I am one who testifies for myself; my other witness is the Father.’ (John 8:17-18:)

    ‘Do not let your hearts be troubled. Trust in God; trust also in me.’ (John 14:1)

    That Jesus is subordinate to God
    ‘Now I want you to realize that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of the woman is man, and the head of Christ is God.’ (1 Corinthians 11:3)

    ‘When he has done this, then the son himself will be made subject to him who put everything under him, so that God may be all in all.’ (1 Corinthians 15:28)

    That Jesus grew in wisdom and learning
    But God is All Wise & does not need to learn: Jesus grew in wisdom, but God is all wise ‘Great is our Lord and abundant in strength; His understanding is infinite.’ (Psalms 147:5)

    ‘And Jesus increased in wisdom.’ (Luke 2:52)

    God does not need to learn, but Jesus learned: ‘Although he was a son, he learned obedience’ (Heb. 5:8)
    ‘No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the son, but only the Father.’ (Mark 13:32)

    That his teachings were from God and not from Jesus himself
    ‘So Jesus answered them and said, ‘My teaching is not mine, but His who sent me.’ (John 7:16)

    That his power was given by God
    ‘All power is given unto me.’ (Matt 28:18)

    That he was taught and commanded by God

    ‘As my Father hath taught me, I speak these things,’ (John 8:28)
    ‘The Father, who sent me, he gave me a commandment.’ (John 12:49)
    ‘I have kept my Father’s commandments.’ (John 15:10)

    ‘God has made this Jesus both Lord and Christ.’ (Acts 2:36)
    ‘Lord’ is used in many ways in the Bible, and others beside God and Jesus are called ‘Lord.’ For example:

    1) property owners (Matt. 20:8)
    2) heads of households (Mark 13:35)
    3) slave owners (Matt. 10:24)
    4) husbands (1 Pet. 3:6)
    5) a son called his father Lord (Matt. 21:30)
    6) the Roman Emperor was called Lord (Acts 25:26)
    7) Roman authorities were called Lord (Matt. 27:63)

    ‘Lord’ is not the same as ‘God.’ ‘Lord’ (the Greek word is kurios) is a masculine title of respect and nobility used many times in the Bible.

    That Jesus was lower than angels
    ‘But we do see him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus.’ (Hebrews 2:9)

    That he called his Father, “my God”
    ‘My God, My God, why have You forsaken me?’ (Matt. 27:46)
    ‘I ascend to my Father and your Father, and my God and your God.’ (John 20:17)

    ‘the temple of my God the name of my God the city of my God comes down out of heaven from my God.’ (Rev. 3:12)

    That God cannot be seen
    But Jesus was seen by others ‘no man has seen God at any time.’ (John 1:18)

    That Jesus was accused of being a God
    ‘The son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father do’; and directly after ‘I can of mine own self do nothing.’ (John 5:19, 30)

    In answer to the charge of making himself God, he appeals to the Jews in substance thus: Your own Scriptures call Moses a god, and your magistrates gods; I am surely not inferior to them, yet I did not call myself God, but only the ‘son’ of God (John 10:34-36).

    That God had many “sons”

    Adam: ‘Adam, which was the son of God.’ (Luke 3:38)
    Jacob is God’s son and firstborn: ‘Israel is my son, even my firstborn.’ (Exodus 4:22)

    Solomon: ‘I will be his father, and he shall be my son.’ (2 Samuel 7:13-14)

    Ephraim: ‘for I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.’ (Jeremiah 31:9)

    is God’s firstborn, common people are called the sons of God: ‘Ye are the children of the Lord your God’ (Deuteronomy 14:1)

    We believe in God but how much we are sure that we believe in the right God? salvation began since God created humans to worship Him, even before the time of Jesus. The verses above must not be overlooked as the messages of God must be fully understand, regardless of human opinions. It must be purely the message of God Himself. Thank you.

    • Marg says:

      Hi SS, Please make your comments shorter, as is impossible to reply adequately to lengthy comments.

      I do not overlook the verses you have mentioned. I notice that you quoted Hebrews 2:9. Jesus did become a little lower than the angels by taking on human flesh, and he also emptied himself of his divine privileges (Phil. 2:6-8). While on earth he was completely reliant on the Father and the Spirit. Yet “in him the whole fullness of deity dwells bodily” (Col.2:9). These are basic Christian doctrines.

      But when Jesus had accomplished his earthly ministry he was again crowned with glory and honour (Heb. 2:9) and was given ha’shem so that “at the name of Jesus every knee should bend,in heaven and on earth and under the earth and every tongue confess that Jesus is Lord” (Phil 2:8-10).

      Not only did Jesus prefer to be called by the title “The Son of Man” a more accurate translation of this title is “Son of Humanity”. Jesus became human so that he could live among us and help us understand God (John 1:14).

      “Since, therefore, the children share flesh and blood, he himself likewise shared the same things, so that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by the fear of death. For it is clear that he did not come to help angels, but the descendants of Abraham. Therefore he had to become like his brothers and sisters in every respect, so that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make a sacrifice of atonement for the sins of the people. Because he himself was tested by what he suffered, he is able to help those who are being tested. Hebrews 2:10-14

      There are many more verses that echo what I have written so far in this comment.

      I agree it is important to understand the message of the Bible, both Old and New Testaments, accurately, but it is not an accurate theology that saves us. Faith in Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour is what saves us, because only Jesus’ death on the cross has paid the penalty for our sins. (And I am well aware of the different uses of kurios in the New Testament and Septuagint.)

      The God I love, serve, and worship is YHWH, the God of the Bible. Not only do I worship him, I know him because I have his promised Holy Spirit (also know as the Spirit of Christ) living inside me, testifying that I am his child and empowering me to serve him (Rom. 8:9-10, 14; 2 Cor. 13:5).

      I am not expressing human opinions, but Scripture. It seems that you have a different theology than me. I wish you well with that. If you are interested in what it means to be a Christian, I have written some basic material here:
      http://newlife.id.au/category/thought-about-becoming-a-christian/

      • Marg says:

        As an aside, the Greek word for head (kephalē) in 1 Cor. 11:3 means “source” or “origin”.

        So the Corinthians seem to be saying that the triune God is the source for the Messiah, or Christ; the Messiah is the source of men, and the first man was the source of the first woman. But this idea is incomplete and not quite correct, so Paul gives his more correct response to the Corinthians’ idea in 1 Corinthians 11:11-12. More on this here.

        It is important not to confuse the parts where Paul quotes from the Corinthians’ letters with Paul’s own teaching.

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