Some Christians believe that 1 Timothy 2:12 contains a timeless prohibition which forbids a woman from teaching a man and exercising authority over him. They also believe that verse 13 contains a reason for this prohibition.
12 I do not permit a woman to teach or ‘to exercise authority over’ [authentein] a man; rather, she is to remain quiet. 13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve (1 Tim. 2:12-13).
Biblical scholar Douglas Moo is one person who believes that “these restrictions [in verse 12] are permanent, authoritative for the church in all times and places and circumstances as long as men and women are descended from Adam and Eve.” But I’m not so sure.
If the created order of man first, woman second, somehow signifies a divine, universal, and incontrovertible principle, why then are there many examples of women in the Bible who did have authority, and did teach and direct certain men? And why did none of these men have a problem with this guidance from women? Surely we are meant to understand that these men and women are descended from Adam and Eve, aren’t we?
The following men didn’t seem to consider that the created order was a factor, let alone an impediment, in regards to a woman teaching or leading, and they listened to what women had to say.
Barak, the general of Israel’s army, depended on Deborah’s leadership. And the Israelites (presumably both men and women) came to Deborah for her decisions on important matters (Judges 4:4-6, 8). (More on Deborah here and here.)
David accepted the prophecy of Abigail (1 Sam. 25:2-42), and King Lemuel accepted the oracles of his mother (Prov. 31:1-9). Moreover, the words of these women are recorded in scripture where they still instruct both men and women.
Joab, the general of David’s army, heeded the words of the Wise Woman of Abel Beth Maacah when she negotiated with him for the safety of her town (2 Sam. 20:14-22). Also, the townsfolk also agreed to her plan and implemented it (2 Sam. 20:22).
King Josiah sent a prestigious all-male delegation to the prophetess Huldah in order to “inquire of the Lord” concerning the rediscovered book of the Law (2 Chron. 34:19-33, etc). Huldah spoke to men on behalf of God, as did other prophetesses.
Mordechai and Abraham did what their niece and wife, respectively, directed them to do; and thus they aligned themselves with the will of God (Esth. 4:17 NIV; Gen. 21:12).
There’s no reason to think the men in the temple, those who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem, had a problem with the prophetess Anna when she spoke to them about the Messiah (Luke 2:37-38).
Jesus didn’t stop the Samaritan woman from telling the men of Sychar about Jesus (John 4:4-42). And later he expressly gave instructions to Mary Magdalene to tell his “brothers” the amazing message that he was alive (John 20:17-18).
Neither Luke (the author of Acts) nor Apollos seemed to be concerned that Priscilla, with her husband Aquila, corrected Apollos (a teacher and up and coming apostle) and explained theology to him.
The church historian Eusebius reveals that Philip’s four daughters were famous prophets who ministered in the early church. There is nothing to suggest that their ministry was limited to women.
This list of men includes kings, generals, a patriarch, and a teacher, yet there is no indication that any of these men felt affronted by the women who guided and advised them. Nor is their any indication that their masculinity was threatened or diminished because they followed directions and instructions given by women. (These things seem to be a problem for men such as John Piper.)
Moreover, in all these and several other episodes recorded in the Bible, there is not the slightest hint that the men were acting improperly by heeding the words of women. Rather, the men benefited by listening to women, as did, in some cases, whole communities and even the nation of God’s people.
More importantly, there is not the slightest hint that God had a problem with these men who were being directed by women. Perhaps, after all, the created order has nothing whatsoever to do with who can teach and lead, and who can speak for God.
There must be something more to 1 Timothy 2:12-13 because, the fact is, there are simply too many examples of godly women who God authorised and used to counsel and guide men, even in matters of theology.
Illustration is from the 13th century Morgan Bible showing the Wise Woman of Abel Beth Maacah, in a fortified tower, looking decidedly medieval. (Wikimedia Commons)
25 Biblical Roles for Biblical Women
Many women leaders in the Bible had this one thing in common
Bible Women with Spiritual Authority
The Complementarian Concept of the Created Order
Women, Teaching, and Deception
Women, Eve, and Deception
Various articles on 1 Timothy 2:12-15 here.
Authority in the Church