1 Timothy 2:12 in Context (4)
1 Timothy 2:11-15 – Verse by Verse
So now we come to the passage that has been used by most of the church for most of its history to prohibit women from any ministry that involves teaching and leading men.
Let a woman quietly receive instruction with entire submissiveness. But I do not allow a woman to teach or exercise authority over a man, but to remain quiet. For it was Adam who was created first and then Eve. And it was not Adam who was deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression. But women will be preserved through the bearing of children if they continue in faith and love and sanctity and self- restraint. 1 Timothy 2:11-15
Verse 11: A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. (NIV)
This is the only verse in this passage that contains a command: “A woman should learn.” This verse appears to be wonderful and revolutionary, since many women at that time were not well educated. However, Paul is not saying here that women must learn. Note that woman is singular and not plural in verse 11. Is Paul speaking about just one particular woman in this passage?
Verse 11 uses the word “submission”. This is a common word in the New Testament and it is used in a variety of contexts. The concept of women being submissive has been greatly over-emphasised by many Christians. Submission, however, is really just the opposite of rebellion. Paul is simply commanding a woman to learn in a quiet, respectable manner – the usual conduct of a good student – and not to be loud, offensive or rebellious. [My article on Submission here.]
Verse 12a: I am not allowing a woman to teach . . .
Note again that the word for “woman” here is singular and not plural. This verse is not saying that women cannot teach men, unless “woman” and “man” are understood generically as applying to all the Ephesian women and men. It is important to note, however, that in the verses immediately preceding verses 11-12, Paul gives instructions to men and to women [plural]. Why the shift from plural to singular?
It is also worth questioning why Paul’s instructions to men and women in 1 Timothy 2:8-10 to lift holy hands in prayer and to not wearing luxurious clothing in church meetings are rarely mentioned, let alone applied or enforced in most contemporary churches, while 1 Timothy 2:12 is applied as the definitive statement on women in ministry. Why do many churches choose to enforce 1 Timothy 2:12 and not 1 Timothy 2:8-10?
Another point to consider here is that Paul does not use an imperative in 1 Timothy 2:12. Paul does not use any of the Greek command tenses in this instruction. Instead he uses the present active indicative epitrepō with the negative ouk: “I am not allowing . . .”
Andrew Perriman (1993) notes that the use of epitrepō in the New Testament, in every case, is ”. . . related to a specific and limited set of circumstances . . .” Perriman goes on to say that, because of Paul’s choice of words, the instruction in verse 12 is more about [local] church governance and practise than theological authority. Moreover, Perriman believes verse 12 to be parenthetical and that Paul’s real concern is not with women teaching, but that the Ephesian women should learn in such a way that they will not be deceived by false teachers. (I am not fully convinced of Perriman’s suggestion that Paul’s real concern was about women learning. )[Perriman's paper is here.]
John E. Toews (1983) notes that the use of epitrepō in the Septuagint (the Greek Old Testament), is likewise usually related to a specific and limited situation rather than a universal one (Gen 39:6; Est 9:14; Job 32:14; see also Wis. of Sol. 19:2; 1 Macc 15:6; 4 Macc 4:18-18). (Epitrepō in 4 Maccabees 5:26, however, is an exception and is not necessarily used in a limited sense.)
It could be that Paul’s instruction in 1 Timothy 2:12 was related to a specific, limited, local situation. The instruction may even have been limited to one particular woman in the Ephesian church.
Verse 12b: . . . nor “authentein” a man . . .
Understanding the word authentein is vital to understanding 1 Timothy 2:12. Authentēs (the noun of authentein) is most definitely not the ordinary word for authority (exousia) which is a fairly common in the New Testament. Authentēs may be closer in meaning to authadēs, which means ”self-willed” or “arrogant”. Paul used this word in Titus 1:7 where he writes that overseers must not be arrogant (authadēs). Christian teachers and leaders, men or women, must not be arrogant. However, the meanings of authentēs are more sinister than “self-willed” or “arrogance”.
While authentēs is used only once in the New Testament (in the infinitive: authentein), it is found in other ancient Greek literature where it is used in reference to violent crimes including murder, suicide and even child sacrifice. ”The Greek orator Antiphon used this word in his legal briefs four times to refer to murder and one time to refer to suicide. Dio Cassius, Thucydides, Herodotus, Euripides, and Philo all used the word in this way.” (Braun 1981) In the Septuagint, Wisdom 12:6 uses the word (in the plural) to describe murderous parents (authentas).
Catherine Kroeger (1979) has shown that this word is often used with a sexual connotation in ancient Greek literature, including literature contemporary with the New Testament. Michael Green (1988:159-161) also suggests that authentēs had a sexual meaning. He writes that Euripides, Philodemus, and Phrynichus use the word in an erotic sense, and that John Chrysostom understood it to mean “sexual licence”.
Chrysostom used the word authentia to denote “sexual license” in his commentary on I John 5:6. Clement of Alexandria also used the word authentia to describe Christians who were engaging in lewd sexual activity. While it may be difficult for us to imagine, sexual licentiousness was not an uncommon problem for the Early Church – especially in congregations where heresy was taught – and so these problems needed to be addressed by church leaders such as Paul.
Albert Wolters, (a Complementarian) has noted that, “. . . the word authentēs played a prominent role in Gnosticism; for example it was the name of the supreme deity in the systems of early Gnostics Cerinthus and Saturninus (first and second centuries AD).” Authentēs, which is grammatically feminine, is typically translated into English as “supreme power” in works by Early Church Fathers who addressed Christian Gnosticism. There is a clear link between the word authentēs with Gnosticism. [In Part 3 of this series I pointed to several indications within Paul's first letter to Timothy that the heresy in the Ephesian church was an early form of Gnosticism.]
What Paul meant by the word authentēs is difficult, if not impossible, for us to fully grasp. For this reason, caution must be taken when interpreting and applying 1 Timothy 2:12. Yet most churches interpret and apply 1 Timothy 2:12 as though its meaning, and Paul’s intention, are perfectly plain.
Another important consideration in interpreting and understanding 1 Timothy 2:12 is the conjunction oude which joins didaskein (“to teach”) with authentein. In New Testament Greek, words joined by the correlative conjunction oude, may join to make a single point. They may even share and blend their meanings to some extent. Perhaps this phrase may be interpreted as: “I am not allowing a woman to teach in order to domineer a man.” Or: “I am not allowing a woman to teach in order to influence/seduce a man with Gnostic beliefs and practises.” (Cf Rev. 2:20KJV)
Andreas Köstenberger (2000), who staunchly believes that 1 Timothy 2:12 is a universal and timeless prohibition of any woman authoritively teaching Christian doctrine to any man, concedes that a possible translation of this phrase might be: “I do not permit a woman to teach [error] or to domineer over a man.” (Köstenberger’s use of square brackets.) While Köstenberger rejects this translation himself, it actually fits the context of 1 Timothy, with its concern of false doctrine, very well.
Verse 12c: . . . she must be silent. (NIV 1984)
The Greek word hēsuchia which is translated in the NIV here as “silent”, really means calmness or quietness, with the implication of “keeping one’s seat.” This same word is correctly translated as “quiet” a few verses earlier in 1 Timothy 2:2 and 2:11. Paul wants the woman (or women) to learn quietly.
This word is given harsh treatment in verse 12 of the NIV (1984) where it is combined with the unwarranted qualifier of “must”, as in: “she must be silent.” There is no “must” in this verse; there is no command in the Greek. This is just one small example where some Bible translators reveal a bias when translating passages about women. [The NIV 2011 retains "must" but replaces "silent" with "quiet".]
I suggest that Paul’s instructions in 1 Timothy 2:11-12 were a correlation of his censure of a badly behaved and ill-informed woman (or perhaps, women) in the Ephesian church who was teaching, or spreading, an early form of Christian Gnosticism, perhaps in a sexual manner much like Jezebel of Thyatira (Rev. 2:20KJV).
If you have read all four parts of this article, please don’t stop now. Part five helps it all to make much more sense.
 New Testament verses which speak about a singular man and a singular woman usually refer to a husband and wife. In the Greek, the same word is used for an adult male and a husband, and similarly the same word is used for an adult woman and a wife. It is not clear in 1 Timothy 2:12 whether the singular “woman” and “man” is to be taken literally or taken generically and applied to all women and men in the Ephesian church.
 See the comments section below for discussions on certain points made in this article, including whether Paul’s instructions referred only to Church services.
 Authadēs is used one other time in the New Testament, in 2 Peter 2:10b, about daring and arrogant people.
 During the past 20 odd years, a number of major studies on the words authentēs and authentein have been conducted, making use of the vastly expanded computer databases available. L. E. Wilshire, who isolated 314 references to authentein and its cognates in Greek literature, published the first of these studies in 1988.
Catherine Kroeger (1979) (writing before these studies) notes that Thucydides, Herodotus, Aeschylus and Euripides used authentes to “denote someone who slays with his own hand. The Jewish Philo, whose writings are contemporary with the New Testament, meant “self-murderer” [that is, someone who commits suicide] by his use of the term.” [The late Catherine Clark Kroeger was adjunct associate professor of classical and ministry studies at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary.]
 “Although one finds hints in certain modern lexicons, the erotic sense of authentēs is often ignored. The grammarian Phynichus, writing approximately A.D. 180, explained that the word is composed of two parts–autos, “self,” and hentos from hiemi: to “thrust out from oneself” or to “desire.” The word should never, he announced, be used to denote tyranny, but rather murder by one’s own hand, as with a sword. (The sword was considered a phallic symbol in ancient Greece.) Moeris, also in the second century, advised his students to use another word, autodikein, as it was less coarse than authentein. The Byzantine Thomas Magister reiterates the warning against using this objectionable term.” (Kroeger 1979)
 “Licentious doctrines continued to vex the church for several centuries, to the dismay of the church fathers. Clement of Alexandria wrote a detailed refutation of the various groups who endorsed fornication as accepted Christian behavior. He complained of those who had turned love-feasts into sex orgies, of those who taught women to ‘give to every man that asketh of thee’, and of those who found in physical intercourse a ‘mystical communion’. He branded one such lewd group authentai (the plural of authentēs).” (Kroeger 1979) More on sexual licentiousness in the Early Church here.
 Jezebel was a female false prophet and teacher who was teaching (didaskei) and seducing (planâ) her followers in the church of Thyatira (Rev. 2:20 KJV).
 More on 1 Timothy 2:12 and oude here The Early Christians at Ephesus from Paul to Ignatius, by Paul Trebilco (2004:513) [More info on this in the comments section below.]
 The teaching of Gnosticism and Authentēs in the Ephesian church may have involved sexual practises. I remember coming across this suggestion years ago and reacting with disbelief. I completely dismissed this idea. But the more I read about the problems in Early Church and incipient Christian Gnosticism, the more I am inclined to believe that a woman in the church at Ephesus was teaching, or spreading, Gnosticism in a sexual way.
© 8th of December, 2009, revised 12th of June, 2011; Margaret Mowczko
<<< Part Three The Problem in the Ephesian Church
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Tags: 1 Timothy 2:12, 1 Timothy 2:12 in context, authentein, Biblical equality, Catherine Kroeger, complementarian arguments, gender roles, silent, submission, the difficult passages, women in ministry debate
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