Learning to thrive in the new life Jesus offers us – 2 Corinthians 5:16-17

Junia in Romans 16:7

Junia in Romans 16:7 Sarah Beth Baca
This article is also available in Hungarian
 (Magyarul) here.

I was talking with a friend recently and Junia came up in our conversation. My friend stated with a great deal of confidence that Junia was definitely not an apostle. My friend also mentioned that his Bible translation of choice was the English Standard Version. I later looked up the ESV online [here] to see whether this translation might have had something to do with his view that Junia was not an apostle. It did.

This article about Junia is written in response to my friend’s confident statement, and so I have deliberately chosen the ESV as a reference point. Here’s what it says about Junia:

Greet Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen[1] and my fellow prisoners. They are well known to the apostles, and they were in Christ before me.  Romans 16:7 (ESV)

Who was Junia?

Andronicus and Junia are mentioned in the New Testament only in Paul’s letter to the Romans (16:7).[2] Paul speaks very warmly about this couple who were possibly a married couple or brother and sister. From this single verse in Romans 16, we can see that both Andronicus and Junia were well known to the church (otherwise Paul would not have mentioned them in his letter); they were related to Paul (or were fellow Jews); they had been imprisoned with Paul; they had been Christians longer than Paul (they may even have been among the founders of the church at Rome); and they were considered as outstanding among the apostles. This last point has been debated in recent times. An older debate, however, is whether Junia was male or female.

Was Junia a woman?

I have read countless articles and books which argue that Junia was a man named Junias and not a woman.[3] The weakness of this argument is that the masculine name Junias never occurs in any Ancient Greek manuscript, or inscription, that dates before the 13th century AD, while the female name Junia appears frequently.[4] This fact is widely acknowledged by most modern Bible scholars. Even the translators of the ESV concede that Junia was most probably a woman. However, they retain the masculine name “Junias” in a footnote.

Was Junia an apostle?

I have also heard people minimise the meaning of the word “apostle” when applied to Junia. Certainly, apart from Jesus’ twelve apostles who are in a special class, an apostle is simply a minister who serves as a church planter, as an envoy, or as a missionary in a leadership capacity.[5] In the New Testament, several people other than the Twelve are called apostles. These other apostles include: Paul, Barnabas (Acts 14:14), Silas, Apollos (1 Cor 1:12), Timothy, Epaphroditus (Phil. 2:25), Andronicus and Junia (Rom. 16:7)—all people with important ministries.[6]

An “apostle” (apostolos) is literally someone who is “sent” (apostellō) on a mission. Church history is full of examples of male and female missionaries.[7] Both men and women have been sent by the church, or been driven by a personal calling, to pioneer significant ministries which have furthered the Gospel, and so these ministries can validly be described as apostolic.[8]

The ESV gives an alternative meaning for “apostles” in a footnote for Romans 16:7. They suggest that “apostles” might be translated as “messengers” here. It could be that Andronicus and Junia were “well known among the messengers”; however people in the New Testament, who were called apostles, were usually more than just messengers. (One duty of some deacons was to act as messengers, and travel between churches to deliver messages, gifts, and encouragement.) From the description we have of Andronicus and Junia, it appears that both of them were involved in significant ministry.

Several Patristic writers regard Junia as a female apostle. In his Homilies on the Book of Romans, fourth century church father John Chrysostom preached favourably about Junia, and clearly acknowledged her as a female apostle. Writing about Andronicus and Junia, he said:

And indeed to be apostles at all is a great thing. But to be even among these of note, just consider what a great tribute this is! But they were of note owing to their works, to their achievements. Oh! How great is the wisdom of this woman, that she should be even counted worthy of the appellation of apostle! Homily 31 on Romans.

Was Junia outstanding?

In most English translations of Romans 16:7, Andronicus and Junia are referred to as “outstanding among the apostles” (Greek: episēmos en tois apostolois).[9] The ESV replaces the usual description of outstanding (Greek: episēmos) with well-known.

BDAG (p.378) defines episēmos as (1) “of exceptional quality, splendid, prominent, outstanding” and it quotes from Romans 16:7: “outstanding among the apostles”.[10]

Michael Brurer and Daniel Wallace suggest that the phrase, episēmos en tois apostolois, can be understood and translated in two ways: that Andronicus and Junia may have been “(a) notable members of the group of the apostles; or, (b) not apostles themselves but well known among (i.e. to) the apostles.”[11] (My underlines.) Both “notable” and “well known” have a milder sense than “outstanding”.

New Testament translators and commentators seem to have chosen one of following three options when translating the phrase episēmos en tois apostolois into English:  

  • (1) Those who think that Junia(s) was a man, such as the translators of the NASB, have typically translated this phrase as “outstanding among the apostles”.
  • (2) Some who acknowledge that Junia was actually a woman, such as the translators of the ESV, the NET Bible, and a few others, have chosen the “softer” option and translate this phrase as “well-known to the apostles”.
  • (3) Others, who also acknowledge that Junia was a woman, keep the more literal translation of “outstanding among the apostles”. This last group of translations includes the NRSV and the NIV. (My underlines.)

[See for yourself  how the translation changes when the translators think Junia is a man—Junias, or a woman—Junia, here. Watch out for the “s” ending on the name! And scroll down the linked page and read the unashamedly prejudiced Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on Romans 16:7.]

Was Junia well-known to the Apostles?

Another troubling aspect of the ESV translation of Romans 16:7 is how the Greek word ἐν (en) has been translated. En is an extremely common word and is used approximately 2830 times in the New Testament. This word is frequently translated as “in” or “among” in English.[12]  Here are a couple of examples of Scriptures where the word en occurs:

“Our Father who is in heaven . . .” Matthew 6:9
“. . .to those among the Diaspora” James 1:1

Writing about Romans 16:7, Peter Lampe, a foremost scholar of Patristic Greek, states succinctly, “The en has to be translated as ‘among’ (the apostles) like in 1 Corinthians 15:12 and James 5:13-14, 19.”[13]

I can only think of one reason to translate this phrase as “well known to the apostles”. That reason is to obscure the fact that Junia, along with Andronicus, was actually outstanding among the apostles.

It is important to note that the Greek New Testament never states that a woman cannot be an apostle, missionary, or church leader. Moreover, in the New Testament, several women are mentioned who obviously were church leaders. Sadly, some Bible commentators have persistently tried to minimise their roles.


In efforts to keep women out of leadership ministries, some Bible translators have been keen to soften the impact of Junia as a valid scriptural precedent of a woman in leadership and ministry. In the past they have tried to make her a man. Now that this idea no longer has credence, some translators are trying to downplay her description of “well-known among the apostles”.

Was Junia a distinguished or notable apostle, or was she well known to the apostles? The more obvious reading of Romans 16:7 is that both Andronicus and Junia were outstanding, or possibly notable, among the apostles. However, even if they were just well known, and it was their reputation that was outstanding among the apostles, surely this in itself is a wonderful endorsement of their ministry.

Here is how the New Revised Standard Version translates Romans 16:7:

Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives who were in prison with me; they are prominent among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was.  (NRSV)


Some people have suggested that Junia is the same person as Joanna who is mentioned in Luke 8:1-3 and Luke 24:9-10. Joanna certainly qualifies as being an apostle according to the traditional understanding of apostolic prerequisites (e.g. seeing the risen Jesus). However, I am unconvinced that Junia and Joanna are the same person.

[1] The Greek word translated in the ESV as “kinsmen” (from suggenēs) in Romans 16:7 can refer to male and female relatives.  I wonder whether the ESV chose the word “kinsmen”, which sounds particularly masculine to modern readers, to obscure the fact that Junia was a woman? Surely “relative” would be easier to understand.
BDAG (p. 950) defines suggenēs as: (1) “Belonging to the same extended family or clan, related, akin to” . . . [or] (2) Belonging to the same people group, compatriot, kin . . .” [9]

[2] Paul obviously held Andronicus and Junia in high esteem. He sent them, and several other ministers, both men and women, his personal greetings in chapter 16 of his letter to the Romans 16. At least ten women are mentioned in Romans chapter 16. These women were all active in some sort of ministry for the gospel, some as house church leaders.

[3] The people who believe that Junia(s) was a man, claim that the name found in Romans 16:7 is a contraction of the male name: Junianus. An interesting and scholarly article by Albert Wolters, somewhat defending this position is here.

[4] The masculinised name Junias does not exist in any Greek manuscript or inscription, religious or otherwise. (The true masculine form of Junia is Junius.) The feminine name Junia however is found over 250 times in various Greek manuscripts.

James D. G. Dunn writes:

Lampe 139–40, 147 [in his Patristic Greek Lexicon] indicates over 250 examples of “Junia,” none of Junias, as was taken for granted by the patristic commentators, and indeed up to the Middle Ages. The assumption that it must be male is a striking indictment of male presumption regarding the character and structure of earliest Christianity. . . We may firmly conclude, however, that one of the foundation apostles of Christianity was a woman and wife.
Romans 9-16, Word Biblical Commentary, Vol 38B, (Dallas: Word, 1988) 894.

Junia’s name was masculinised during the thirteenth century by an unknown manuscript copyist. Bernadette Brooten has noted that the earliest commentator on Romans 16:7, Origen of Alexandria (c. 185–255), took the name Junia to be feminine, as did Jerome (c. 340–c. 420), Hatto of Vercelli (924-961), Theophylact (c. 1050–c. 1108), and Peter Abelard (1079–1142). In fact no commentator on the text until Aegidus of Rome (1245–1316) took the name to be masculine.
Bernadette Brooten, “Junia . . . Outstanding among the Apostles” (Romans 16:7) in Women Priests: A Catholic Commentary on the Vatican Declaration,  Arlene and Leonard Swidler (eds.) (Paulist Press, 1979) 141.  Brooten’s chapter can be viewed online here.

Kenneth Bailey writes:

The first noticeable shift from Junia to Junias was apparently made by Faber Stapulensis, writing in Paris in 1512. His work subsequently influenced Luther’s commentary on Romans.
“Women in the New Testament: A Middle Eastern Cultural View,” Theology Matters, Vol. 6 No. 1 (Jan-Feb 2000) 2. (This paper can be read free and online here.)

John Thorley writes:

The universal view of the early fathers was that the name was Junia, and that she was a woman, and the English Authorised Version of 1611 followed this reading “Junia”, clearly a woman’s name; and in fact “Junias” became a man in English translations only in 1881 when the Revised Version was published. Luther, however, in his German translation of 1552 had already opted for [the masculine] “den Juniam”, and continental translations have since then mostly followed this masculine interpretation.
“Junia, a Woman Apostle” in Novum Testamentum, Vol. 38, January, 1996, 18-29.

The female name “Junia” was used in the Tyndale and King James Bible. Later English translations used the masculine name “Junias” until recently.  N.B. The highlighted Scripture texts on this page use the NASB that has the masculine  “Junias”.

[5] The function of being an apostle is one the church leadership gifts mentioned in Ephesians 4:11.

And these were his [Jesus’] gifts: some to be apostles, some prophets, some evangelists, some pastors and teachers, to equip God’s people for work in his service, to the building up of the body of Christ.  Ephesians 4:11

[6]  Jesus is also called an apostle in Hebrews 3:1.

[7] What I find peculiar about the whole tension of whether Junia was really an apostle, is that the word “apostle” (derived from Greek) is just another word for “missionary” (derived from Latin), and there have been numerous examples of women being missionaries without causing any controversy. 

[8] Even though the church has mostly hindered women (instead of encouraging them in ministry), there have always been a few women who, because of their elevated social position (nobility), personal wealth, exceptional intelligence, tenacity or extraordinary gifts, have functioned as leaders. Catherine of Sienna, Madame Guyon, Amy Carmichael, Gladys Aylward, Countess Huntingdon, Phoebe Palmer, Lottie Moon and Dorothy L. Sayers are just a few who spring to mind. Who knows how much the progress of the Gospel has been diminished by disallowing women to minister as equals, side by side with men. or even on their own?

[9] The following Bible translations use the phrase “outstanding among the apostles” or “of note among the apostles” in Romans 16:7: New International Version (1984); New American Standard Bible (1995); American Standard Bible; International Standard Version (2008); Douay Rheims Bible; Bible in Basic English; Darby Bible Translation; English Revised Version; Webster’s Bible Translation; Weymouth New Testament; Word English Bible; etc.

[10] BDAG = A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd Edition, by Walter Bauer, revised and edited by F.W Danker (University of Chicago Press, 2000) As a second, alternative definition, BDAG has: (2) “Also in a bad sense: notorious.” It goes without saying, that Paul could in no way have been implying that Andronicus and Junia were notorious. Episēmos is used only one other time in the New Testament, in Matthew 27:16, in reference to Barabas, who certainly qualifies as being notorious!

[11] M. H. Brurer and D. B. Wallace,”Was Junia Really an Apostle? A Re-examination of Romans 16:7″ in New Testament Studies, CUP, Vol 47, Number 1, (January, 2001) 76-91.  A version of this paper is available here.

[12] En is always followed by a word or phrase in the dative case. En is commonly translated as “in” or “among”. It can also be translated as “on”, “at”, “by”, “with”, “when”, and occasionally, “to”.

[13] Peter Lampe, “The Roman Christians of Romans 16”, The Writings of St. Paul, Wayne A. Meeks and John T. Fitzgerald (eds) (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2007) 665.

© 1st of April, 2010; Margaret Mowczko

Portrait of Junia is by artist Sarah Beth Baca, used here with the artist’s permission. Sarah’s Facebook page is here. Some of her artworks can be viewed and purchased here.

Related Articles

The ESV Bible’s Men-only Club
Apostles in the New Testament Church
What was the Job Description of Jesus’ Apostles?
Did Priscilla Teach Apollos?
Euodia and Syntyche: Women Church Leaders at Philippi
1 Timothy 2:12 in Context
Stephanas or Stephana: Man or Woman?
Nino of Georgia: A Woman Evangelist “Equal to the Apostles

Posted April 1st, 2010 . Categories/Tags: Bible Women, Equality and Gender Issues, Equality in Ministry, Women in Ministry, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Unkind, judgemental, bizarre, and off-topic comments will be deleted.

31 comments on “Junia in Romans 16:7

  1. […] I have written more about Junia, including the alteration of her name here.  […]

  2. […] Junia and the Esv by Marg at New Life […]

  3. Noel says:

    Fine article Margaret!

    I quite appreciated your comparison of the New American Standard and its use of “en” plus the dative, as compared to the ESV. Well said!

    I have heard the ESV touted as a fine literal translation, but given its handling of Romans 16:7 it is easy to see that ideological commitments were alive and well in the translation committee.

    For what its worth, Eldon Jay Epp’s “Junia The First Woman Apostle,” pages 72-79 has a nice summary of the academic responses to Wallace, for anyone who may be interested in digging deeper.

    Thanks again!

  4. […] I found a new kindred spirit! Marg writes from Australia on the topic of Biblical Equality. I enjoyed reading Towards Biblical Equality: My Story.  She has many great articles on her site such as Junia and the ESV. […]

  5. Marg says:

    Thanks Noel. Yes, the ideological commitments were very much alive and well in the translation committee. I guess all translation teams have a certain ideology or agenda.

    Have you seen this article about the ESV’s male-only translation committee?

  6. Don Johnson says:

    What happened with the ESV is that the translators HAD to find a way to negate Junia being a woman and an apostle, due to their masculinist bias. They could figure out that the Junias claim was very weak, so they put it in a footnote. Some masculinists use special pleading to reduce the meaning of apostolos, but that is also weak. So they went with what they saw as their strongest argument, that the phrase your discuss MAY NOT mean she was an apostle. The problem with this choice is that every ECF who wrote about Junia wrote that she was an apostle, so it is the most natural reading for a native Greek speaker, which the ECF were. Given that they were far from being egalitarians, this is a very important point.

    So the ESV translators ask us to buy their theory and I do not buy it. I think everyone should reject it.

  7. Marg says:

    Thanks Don. I had to think about what ECF might mean. I figure it means Early Christian Father.

    Many of the same people who say that egalitarians tamper with Scripture or deny the plain reading of Scripture are doing just that with Junia. They will not allow that Romans 16:7 shows that a Junia was an apostle.

    (BTW, I deny the allegations that egalitarians tamper with Scripture. I also deny the allegations that egalitarians don’t follow a plain sense reading of Scripture. Some verses in the Bible are plain, and we can take them literally. Other verses are in fact not plain, and so it is unwise to take them at face value.)

  8. […] “Paul valued Priscilla, Euodia and Syntyche as his co-workers in the Gospel ministry. He refers to Junia as outstanding among the apostles. He commends Phoebe as a sister, patroness and minister. He acknowledges the ministry labours of Tryphena, Tryphosa and Persis. He took seriously a report from Chloe of Corinth. He passed on greetings from Claudia of Rome, and sent greetings to Apphia of Colossae. He warmly mentions no less than ten women in Roman 16. He recognised the house church of Nympha in Laodicea. He accepted the hospitality of Lydia in Philippi. He respected the faith of Lois and Eunice. Paul valued the ministry of women and even compared his own ministry to that of a breastfeeding woman.” […]

  9. […] Junia and her partner Andronicus were active in ministry.  In Romans 16:7, Paul states a few of their credentials: They were fellow Jews, they had suffered for their faith and been in prison with Paul, they had been Christians longer than him, and they were outstanding among the apostles. More on Junia here. […]

  10. Kate says:

    There’s a new book out which deals comprehensively with these questions and demonstrates beyond doubt that Junia was a woman and that she was among the apostles as opposed to known to them. “Junia A Woman An Apostle” by David Williams

  11. Marg says:

    Hi Kate, Thanks for this. I haven’t heard of this book. I went to Amazon but was unable to look inside the book.

  12. Kate says:

    Marg, my husband wrote the book so I got an advance copy! It only came out last week and Amazon are still processing the look inside facility. It should be available in the next week or so.

  13. Marg says:

    Great – I’ll take another look next week.

    The blurb is excellent and well written.

  14. […] Perhaps Joanna and Susanna were at the crucifixion with Mary Magdalene and the other women. Luke writes that Joanna was one of the women who took the news of the resurrection to the male disciples (Luke 24:1-11), so she may very well have been at the Cross too. Some speculate that Joanna is the same person as Junia in Romans 16:7. […]

  15. Elizabeth says:

    Hi Kate, I’m assuming your husband is a Christian? I was more than a little surprised at the vitriolic tone of the book and implying amongst other things that Wayne Grudem is incompetent and a hypocrite. Sadly that detracts from what would otherwise be a very interesting argument.

  16. David says:

    Hi Elizabeth. In view of your comments Kate thought it might be better for you to get a reply straight from the horses mouth. Your assumption is correct, I am a Christian. I am very surprised that you consider the book to have a vitriolic tone. The book was proof read by many people prior to publication and they provided a great deal of critical feedback, but not one of them questioned the tone of the book. Are you suggesting it is vitriolic throughout or is there a particular passage/section you have in mind?
    As for implying Wayne Grudem is incompetent and a hypocrite, I think it only fair to provide a proper context. As you will know from reading the book, Grudem heavily criticised someone else for providing incorrect citations and misrepresenting evidence (btw he was far more vitriolic than I allegedly was!) and then supported a paper which contained incorrect citations and misrepresented evidence. How does that not amount to hypocricy? For the record, the reference to incompetence was aimed at Burer and Wallace and for the reasons I set out in my book, I stand 100% behind that reference. Further, by apparently unquestioningly accepting Burer and Wallace’s arguments and failing to spot incorrect citations and the mistreatment of evidence, Grudem wasn’t exactly demonstrating a high level of competence.
    I am sorry if you felt any of this detracted from my argument, but my tone was certainly not intended to be vitriolic, and when considered in context, I believe my comments about Grudem are fully justified.
    In any event, thanks for reading my book and I hope you enjoyed it despite your concerns.

  17. […] Paul is already acquainted with some of their ministers, both men and women, and sends them greetings in his letter (Rom. 16:3ff). He had met some of these ministers when his and their journeys intersected (e.g. Priscilla and Aquila, Andronicus and Junia). Others he may have known by reputation only. […]

  18. […] Junia is not the only New Testament woman who was an apostle. Mark Goodacre observes that Mary Magdalene “seems to be depicted in the narratives of the four canonical Gospels as the first woman apostle.” [9] Mary Magdalene, and other women who were close followers of Jesus, may have been category two apostles. Many women from Galilee had left their homes to travel with Jesus and support his ministry. These women may have continued to travel after Pentecost, as eyewitnesses, evangelists, and apostles, spreading the message of the Gospel of their beloved Jesus.[…]

  19. Lauren Kallie says:

    Hi Marg! I am so thankful for the work you are doing. It’s wonderful.
    I am just a lay person, but your mention of Paul as an additional apostle to “the twelve” makes me have to question what I’ve believed about the twelve. When the eleven cast lots to see who would replace Judas, we don’t ever hear anything about Matthias again (do we?). Since God says of Paul’s conversion that he is the chosen one to bring the good news to the Gentiles/kings/Israelites, I have taken it to mean that actually Paul is God’s 12th apostle. What do you think? I should probably look into this type of thing before I ask it in a comment, huh? But regardless, it wouldn’t change any part of your argument because there are still many other apostles after “the twelve” as you point out.
    I am totally refreshed by the work of your ministry. You are an incredible vessel. Thank you so much.

  20. […] Being a pastor and being an apostle are not the same thing. Having said that, we do have the example of a New Testament woman who was an apostle – Junia (Rom. 16:7). […]

  21. […] 5. Marg Mowczko on the ESV translation and Junia. […]

  22. […] In his commentary on Paul’s letter to the Romans, Morris stated that “Phoebe is certainly called a deacon” in Romans 16:1; and Junia along with Andronicus (mentioned in Romans 16:7) were “outstanding among the apostles which might mean that the apostles held them in high esteem or that they were apostles, and notable apostles at that.” Morris adds, “The former understanding seems less likely . . .”
    The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1988) p.529 & 534. […]

  23. […] [1] Paul uses the same language and same ecclesial titles such as co-worker (Rom. 13:3-4: Phil. 4:2-3), apostle (Rom. 16:6-7), and deacon (Rom. 16:1-2), to describe both male and female ministers. […]

  24. Elizabeth says:

    To build an entire theory of women apostles based solely upon the mention of a man and woman in one line of a salutation at the end of Romans is ridiculous. When comparing scripture, there simply is not the evidence, unless you are a lawyer who knows how to make a weak argument sound convincing. According to bible translators, the word used at the beginning of 1 Timothy 3 for ‘anyone’ or ‘whoever’ is contentious because it is not masculine enough. Leadership roles are God-ordained to males and it is only the effect of modern society on the church that is making Christians doubt this.

    • Marg says:

      Hi Elizabeth,

      My article is not about “an entire theory of women apostles”, it is about one woman apostle – Junia. I think you may be reading much more into the article than is actually being stated.

      You are quite right, however, when you say there is just one line about Andronicus and Junia; and yet Paul manages to say four significant things about the couple in this one line. He was not dismissive of their ministry “credentials”, but stated them plainly and succinctly.

      I don’t know why you mention 1 Timothy 3:1, and I don’t know of contentions about “whoever”. “Whoever” is a fine translation of the Greek word tis. But this has little to do with Junia, because an apostle in Rome and an overseer in Ephesus are not the same thing.

      The very early church was very different to the church today. In the churches that Paul founded, and others, women prayed and prophesied aloud, and exercised other ministry gifts, including leadership gifts. Wealthy women hosted churches and cared for the welfare of the members. It is a modern understanding of “church” that hinders people from recognising what was happening in the first house churches where everyone could contribute, and gender and class distinctions were minimised. Chrysostom, who I quote in the article, was not influenced by modern society, and yet he acknowledged Junia as an apostle.

      There are many godly women leaders and ministers mentioned in the Bible, Junia is just one of them. Leadership and ministry are not tied to gender, especially in the New Creation community of the church.

      If you feel I have written something in error in the article, please refer to it specifically.

    • Marg says:

      Or are you replying belatedly to David?

  25. […] Unfortunately, Junia’s impact as a precedent for female church leadership has been slight because many people have failed to realise that she was a woman. This problem has been exacerbated by the fact that, in the 13th century, a New Testament copyist masculinised her name to (the equivalent of) Junias.[5] This alteration to scripture was then adopted by many English translations, until recently. However, in all the Greek manuscripts before the 13th century, Junia’s name is feminine and several early church theologians, such as Chrysostom, Origen, and Jerome, referred to her as being both female and an apostle.[6] Junia was one of the first female apostles, but many more apostolic women, throughout the church’s history, have pioneered new works which have facilitated the spread of the gospel. [More about Junia here.] […]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

© 2009–2016   Margaret Mowczko | Powered by WordPress

More in Bible Women, Equality and Gender Issues
A Suitable Helper (in Hebrew)

In the past, many people have had a narrow and lowly view of the meaning of "helper" (ezer) used for Eve in Genesis...