Learning to thrive in the new life Jesus offers us – 2 Corinthians 5:16-17

What the Bible says about Mary the Magdalene

Mary Magdalene (lightstock ID 79908)

This article looks at what the Bible says about Mary Magdalene, and especially at what “Magdalene” might mean. Does it refer to Mary’s home town? Was it her nick-name? Or does it somehow imply that Mary was a prostitute?

Mary from Magdala

Mary Magdalene was a wealthy woman and one of Jesus’ closest and most faithful disciples. She is mentioned by name over a dozen times in the New Testament—only in the four gospels—where she is referred to, with remarkable consistency, as “Mary the Magdalene” (Maria, or Mariam, hē Magdalēnē in the Greek.)[1] The “ēnē” ending in Magdalēnē indicates that the word is an adjective and can function in the same way as, for example, “Nazarene” functions in “Jesus the Nazarene”;[2] and so it has been widely assumed that Mary was from a town in Israel with the name Magdala (Aramaic) or Migdol (Hebrew).

Mary’s home town may have been Migdol Nûnîya, a busy and fairly Hellenized port town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, three kilometres north of Tiberias.[3] Migdol Nûnîya (“the Fish Tower”) is known in Greek sources as Tarichea (“Centre of Fish Salting”). Or perhaps Mary’s hometown was the “Tower of Dyers”, also near Tiberias, and Mary had made her wealth by dying cloth (cf. Lydia in Acts 16:14-15). Many places in Israel were (and are) called Migdol, Magdal, or Magdala, etc; so it is impossible to determine which town is Mary’s hometown with any degree of certainty, assuming that “Magdalene” does in fact refer to her place of origin. There are, however, a few other interpretive possibilities for “the Magdalene”.

Mary the Tower

It is possible that Mary Magdalene was not necessarily from a town called Magdala but that “Magdalene” was a nick-name. Jesus gave the descriptive nicknames “Rock” and “Sons of Thunder” to his three closest disciples: Simon Peter, and the brothers John and James. Perhaps he gave Mary the nick-name “the Magdalene”. Mary was a very common name and Jesus had other female followers and relatives called Mary. So a distinguishing nickname would have been—and continues to be—useful in identifying Mary Magdalene.

Magdala means “tower”, “watch-tower”, or “fortress”, etc, in Aramaic.[4]  If “Magdalene” is a nick name meaning “tower”, then Mary may have been a particularly tall or strong woman. Mary was with Jesus in many critical moments of his life and ministry, and she may have been a strong support for him and his followers, especially his female followers from Galilee. Mary, and many other women from Galilee, travelled with Jesus and the Twelve, and they financed Jesus’ ministry out of their own resources (Luke 8:2; Matt. 27:55-56 cf. Mark 16:1). Mary is typically named first in lists of these women from Galilee, with the exception of the list in John 19:25.

The idea that “Magdalene” was a nickname fits with what it says in Luke 8:2, that Mary was called “Magdalene” (Maria hē kaloumenē Magdalēnē.) Luke uses an identical construction for “Judas who is called Iscariot” in Luke 22:3: Ioudan ton kaloumenon Iskariōtēn,[5] and for “Simeon who is called Niger” in Acts 13:1: Simeōn ho kaloumenos niger. (Niger is a Latin word meaning “dark” or “black”.)

I think it is possible that Mary, as a close, valued, and loved disciple, was given a nickname with a strong meaning, like the nicknames of Peter, John and James, but there is at least one other possibility that may account for the appellation “the Magdalene”.

Mary who Plaited Hair

Thomas McDaniel (2007:339–340) quotes others who state that an almost identical word to magdala can mean “hairdresser,” from gadal which means “to weave, to twine, to plait, to dress hair” (Jastrow 213, 218); and that in the Arabic-Syriac lexicon of Bar-Bahlul (c. 953 C.E.) it was stated that Mary was called “Magdalene” because her hair was braided (J. Payne Smith 60–61).[6]

McDaniel goes on to quote from John Lightfoot’s A Commentary of the New Testament from the Talmud and Hebraica (1658: 3:87, 375) where Lightfoot equates plaited hair with prostitution.

Whence she was called Magdalene, doth not so plainly appear; whether from Magdala, a town on the lake of Gennesaret, or from the word mgdla which signifies a plaiting or curling of the hair, a thing usual with harlots. . . . The title which they [the Talmudists] gave their Mary [mgdla] is so like this of ours, that you may with good reason doubt whether she was called Magdalene from the town of Magdala, or from that word of the Talmudist mgdla, a plaiter of hair. We leave it to the learned to decide.

Lightfoot was not the first to link Mary Magdalene with prostitution. Pope Gregory the Great gave a sermon in Rome on September the 14th, 591, in which he incorrectly identified Mary Magdalene as the unnamed sinner in Luke 7:37, and he asserted that she was penitent prostitute. Pope Gregory’s assertion stuck and for well over a thousand years most Christians have assumed that Mary Magdalene had been a prostitute.[7]

Furthermore, the chance similarity of a Greek word magdalia, which can mean “dirt washed off”,[8] with the completely unrelated Aramaic word magdala “became intertwined in Western traditions about Mary Magdalene, soiling her name and her reputation.” (McDaniel 2007:348) Subsequently, “Magdalene” entered dictionaries as a word which means “reformed prostitute”. There is nothing in the gospels, however, which hints at Mary having been a prostitute. What we do know of Mary’s past is that she had been afflicted by seven demons which Jesus cast out of her, after which time she became a devoted disciple of Jesus (Luke 8:2).[9]

Mary and the Resurrection

In the Bible, Mary Magdalene is especially connected with the resurrection of Jesus. Mary, with a few other women, was the first person to learn that Jesus had been resurrected from death. Mark and John record that she was the very first person to see Jesus alive after his resurrection (Mark 16:9; John 20:1ff, cf. Luke 24:1ff). My favourite Bible passage about Mary and the resurrection is in John’s gospel where we get to hear her speak (John 20:11-18). John 20:16 is especially moving when Jesus simply calls her “Mary”, and she responds with “Rabboni” which means “my master-teacher”.[10] I am certain that the strong affection between the two was mutual.[11]

We should not downplay Mary’s ministry and significance as one of Jesus’ foremost disciples. We should be especially careful that we do not downplay the significance that Mary Magdalene was the first person to see Jesus alive at the beginning of a new era and that she was commissioned by Jesus to proclaim the message of his resurrection. We do not know for sure whether Mary was from a town called Magdala, or if she plaited hair, but the gospels do show that she was a faithful tower of strength and support among Jesus’ disciples.


Endnotes

[1] Mary Magdalene is mentioned by name in the following Bible verses: Matthew 27:56, 61; 28:1; Mark 15:40, 47; 16:1, 9; Luke 8:2; 24:10; John 19:25; 20:1, 11, 16, 18. In most of these verses she is called Maria hē Magdalēnē in the Greek (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40, 47; 16:1, 9; Luke 8:2; 24: 10; John 19:25; 20:1).  (N.B. Mark 16:9 may not have been part of the original gospel of Mark.  The oldest manuscripts of Mark end at Mark 16:8.)
In Matthew 27:61; 28:1 and John 20:18 she is called Mariam hē Magdalēnē.  (Mary the mother of Jesus is likewise sometimes called Maria and at other times called Mariam. I see no significance in the variation of essentially the same name.)
In Luke 24:10 Mary Magdalene’s name appears as hē Magdalēnē Maria, but in Luke 8:2 we have the only difference of note where Luke has Maria hē kaloumenē Magdalēnē: “Mary the one called “Magdalene”.
In John 20:1ff where she is mentioned several times, once she is simply called “Maria”(John 20:11), and, a few verses later, Jesus simply calls her “Mariam” to which she responds in Aramaic, “Rabboni!” (John 20:16).

[2] The grammatical construction of “Jesus” with “Nazarene” in the Greek New Testament is not nearly as consistent and neat as the construction of “Mary the Magdalene” (Maria hē Magdalēnē) (cf. Matt. 2:23; Mark 14:67; 16:6).

[3] Thomas F. McDaniel in Chapter 32 “The Meaning of ‘Mary,’ ‘Magdalene,’ and other Names: Luke 8:2 and Related Texts”, from his book Clarifying Baffling Biblical Passages (2007) 338-339. (Source)  

[4] There is also a Greek word magdōlos which means tower, but it is loan word from the Hebrew and Aramaic.

[5] The meaning of “Iscariot” is unclear. It may refer to a place; however the word is very similar to two Hebrew words one meaning “false one” and another meaning “stop up”. Joan Taylor discusses the meaning of Iscariot in her paper “The name ‘Iskarioth’ (Iscariot)’, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 129 No. 2 (2010) 367-383. Taylor “supports the very early definition made by Origen—that [Iscariot] derives from the Hebrew/Aramaic root scr, ‘stop up’, ‘block’.” “Iscariot” may have been a nickname given to Judas posthumously to indicate that he was a false disciple or, as Taylor suggests, it may refer to how he died (Matt. 27:5; Acts 1:18; and Papias, Exposition 3).

[6] McDaniel also gives a few other possible meanings for Magdala in his book. (See endnote 3.)

[7] Mary Magdalene has also been confused with Mary of Bethany and with the unnamed woman caught in adultery. Jesus said to the woman caught in adultery “Neither do I condemn you. Go your way, and from now on do not sin again” (John 8:11 NRSV, my italics). Mary Magdalene, on the other hand, did not go her own way after being delivered from seven demons but accompanied Jesus throughout Galilee and went all the way to Jerusalem with him for his crucifixion.

[8] The Greek word magdalia (and the later word apomagdalia) has as one of its meanings “dirt washed off”. LSJ (1996) 209 & 1070.

[9] Ben Witherington writes, “Seven was the number of completion or perfection [and so w]e are meant to understand that [Mary] was particularly captivated by the dark presence in her life and required deliverance by an external power. Demonic possession controls the personality and leads to voices speaking through the person, fits, and acts of unusual power. Jesus delivered Miriam [or Mary] from this condition, which apparently prompted her to drop everything and follow him around Galilee.” (Source) 

[10] Rabboni (or rabbouni) is rabbon with a suffix which mean “my”. Rabbon is the highest title of honor for a teacher in the Jewish schools. Wesley Perschbacher, The New Analytical Greek Lexicon (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1990) 361.

[11] There is nothing in the Bible which indicates that Jesus and Mary were married, or had children together. Considering Jesus’ ministry, including his redemptive death and return to the Father forty days later, I think it is unlikely that he would have chosen to marry and have a family.

Image Credit: Lightstock ID 79908


Related Articles 

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Who will roll away the stone?
Martha, Mary, and Lazarus of Bethany
Paul’s Instructions for “Modest Dress”
Equality and Unity in Ministry: 1 Corinthians 12 

Posted May 26th, 2014 . Categories/Tags: Bible Women, Equality and Gender Issues, Women in Ministry, , , , , ,

Unkind, judgemental, bizarre, and off-topic comments will be deleted.

33 comments on “What the Bible says about Mary the Magdalene

  1. Ginny says:

    Great post! I love the fact that she was the first to declare that Jesus had risen!

  2. Don Johnson says:

    I did not know about options 2 and 3, so thanks.

    I think you have a typo, you mean Mark 16:9 not Luke in note 1.

    Are there any constructions where Magdalene is used similar to Peter or sons of Thunder?

    • Marg says:

      Hi Don,

      I’ve looked up Luke 6:14 and Mark 3:17. The wording is quite different in these two verses compared with the verses about Mary Magdalene. In these two verses the Greek word for named and names is used in regards to “Peter” (Rock) and “Boanerges” (Sons of Thunder). And it is clear that Jesus gave these names to his three closest disciples. However, different wording does not rule out that “Magdalene” was a nick-name meaning “the tower” given to her by either Jesus and/or the community of Jesus followers.

      Typo corrected. Thanks for that.

  3. bev murrill says:

    Excellent once again, Marg. I did not know most of that, and love the inference that Mary was a strong tower to the ministry and life of Jesus. Changes my thoughts exactly. I’m irritated that she has been smirched as a prostitute all these years with such little evidence.

  4. Marg says:

    Hi Bev, thanks for your encouraging comments here and elsewhere.

    It’s nothing less than scandalous how Mary Magdalene has been maligned and misrepresented. And she’s just one of many New Testament women whose ministries have been diminished, overlooked, or ignored.

    On the other hand, some Christians refer to Mary Magdalene as the “apostle to the apostles” because, at the dawn of a new era, Jesus charged her with telling the male disciples the amazing message that he was alive. I don’t think it was a coincidence that the first person to see Jesus alive after his resurrection was a woman. And I think the resurrected Jesus was trying to show us something by choosing to first speak through a woman. Thank you Jesus!

  5. I have been curious about Mary Magdalene. I don’t believe she was a prostitute either, but she was a very devoted follower of Jesus Christ. She was present at when he was crucified and was the first to witness his resurrection in a time when a woman’s testimony wasn’t valuable as a man’s. She was a rather important figure in Jesus’s time. Once again good post.

  6. Robin Cohn says:

    I’m assuming you came to the conclusion that Mary was a wealthy woman based on Luke 8:2-3 which states that several of Jesus’ female followers, including Mary, provided for him out of their own resources. I agree that she was relatively well off however I’ve noted that scholars are divided on this subject. Have you delved into the arguments for and against the conclusion that she was a woman of means?

    Regardless, my favorite analysis of Mary is by Marianne Sawicki in her article, “City Women in the Entourage of Jesus” p.193. She speculates that she was a business women in the salt fish export business. As profitable as that enterprise may or may not have been, if Mary was in the export business, I think it very likely that she sold garum, the fish sauce Romans couldn’t get enough of. In the first century, the sauce made from the fish from the Sea of Galilee was world-renowned and could fetch the highest prices. If anything could make Mary rich, it would be trafficking in this commodity.

    At any rate, I’m curious about your insights.

    https://www.facebook.com/robincohnwomenofthebible

    • Marg says:

      Hi Robin, thanks for your comment. I value your knowledge and insights.

      Basically, I assume that Mary Magdalene was wealthy because she, along with other women, financially supported Jesus and his disciples during their itinerant ministry, and also because she had the freedom and means to travel herself for an extended period of time. Matthew 27:55-56 and Mark 16:1 add to the picture of a woman with access to money.

      Unlike most women of that time, Mary Magdalene is not identified by her connection with a male family member, so she may have been a widow – although some Jewish widows are identified by their late husbands or sons in the NT. I think it’s more probable that she may have been an independent business woman.

      Just working from the texts of the canonical gospels, I can’t see that a case can be made that she wasn’t a woman of some means, but I am always happy to learn more.

  7. […] Mary the Magdalene, by Marg Mowczko (New Life) […]

  8. […] misinformation that paints women in the biblical narrative in a negative light is now being corrected. Case in point – there is nothing in the text to indicate that Mary Magdalene was a prostitute. New scholarship helps us avoid such shallow caricatures. […]

  9. […] Jesus had no problem authorising and entrusting his marvellous message, that he was alive, to a woman.  Jesus’ commission has led the Eastern Orthodox Church to call Mary Magdalene “the apostle to the apostles”.  [More on Mary Magdalene here.] […]

  10. […] Mary Magdalene and the other women had a ministry to perform.  They wanted to anoint Jesus’ body with spices but there was an obstacle in the way – a big obstacle. […]

  11. […] Several wealthy women in the New Testament appear to have been the mistresses of their own homes with no mention of a man as head: Lydia, Nympha, Chloe, and John Mark’s mother. Other New Testament women are mentioned as being of independent means. Jesus’ ministry was sponsored by Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Susanna, and many other women who accompanied Jesus and ministered to him out of their own, personal resources (Luke 8:2-3). It was uncommon, but not rare, for a woman to be independently wealthy, or a homeowner, in New Testament times. […]

  12. […] Mark Goodacre observes that Mary Magdalene “seems to be depicted in the narratives of the four canonical Gospels as the first woman apostle.” [9] Mary Magdalene, and other women who were close followers of Jesus, may have been category two apostles. Many women from Galilee had left their homes to travel with Jesus and support his ministry. These women may have continued to travel after Pentecost, as eyewitnesses, evangelists, and apostles, spreading the message of the Gospel of their beloved Jesus. […]

  13. […] Eve is sometimes portrayed as a sexual temptress.  And poor Mary Magdalene has been unfairly identified for centuries as a whore. […]

  14. […] These women had travelled to be with Jesus and to minister to him by taking care of his needs. From this group of many, Matthew identified just three of the women: Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the unnamed mother of the sons of Zebedee. Mark, in his parallel account, also lists just three women: Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and Salome[1], but he adds that many other women from Galilee were near the cross with them (Mark 15:40-41 cf Mark 16:1). […]

  15. […] Mary Magdalene was the first person to see Jesus alive and she was the first person entrusted with the amazing message Jesus’ resurrection.  The gospel writers recognised that this was significant.[1] Like them, I also believe this was significant. It was no mere coincidence that the first person to see Jesus alive after his resurrection was a woman. With Jesus’ death and resurrection, a new era began, a New Creation was now possible (2 Cor 5:17). […]

  16. […] [5] Mary Magdalene, Huldah, the wise woman of Abel Beth Maacah, and the wise woman of Tekoa also qualify as Bible women who spoke authoritatively to men. […]

  17. […] There are other theories and they are well-explained by Margaret Mowczko in her post Mary the Magdalene. Whatever the origin, this “nickname” helps us distinguish her from the half dozen Marys mentioned in the Bible. […]

  18. […] Mary Magdalene was the first person to see Jesus alive, and she was the first person entrusted with the amazing message of the resurrection.  Jesus himself charged Mary to tell the male disciples that he was alive (John 20:17-18).    More about Mary Magdalene here. […]

  19. […] Martha and Mary of Bethany were devoted to Jesus, as was Mary of Magdala and others. No doubt there were many grateful women, and men, who opened their homes to Jesus and made sure that he was well-provided for. […]

  20. Magdalene-stephen says:

    In fact, I agree that Mary Magdalene was the apostle of the apostles because she was the first woman entrusted with a good news of the promises of salvation and resurrection of the righteous of mankind.

  21. […] In the New Testament we read that the Saviour, the Son of God, came into the world through a woman. Amazing! And the first person to see the resurrected Jesus, at the beginning of the New Covenant era, was a woman. […]

  22. Tim says:

    Thanks for relinking this post, Marg. The word study on Magdalene (and Rabboni, to boot!) is excellent.

    • Marg says:

      Thanks Tim.

      I can’t believe how many people still believe with certainty that Mary Magdalene was a prostitute, and that Eve, Delilah, Bathsheba and other Bible women were seductresses, even though the scriptures never say so. It seems that some people’s interpretations of the Bible have been unduly influenced by films and traditional art, rather than the words on the page.

  23. […] María Magdalena era una torre fiel de la fuerza y ​​el apoyo entre los discípulos de Jesús. […]

  24. […] It seems to me that people have been too quick to cast aspersions on some women of the Bible. Eve, Delilah, and Bathsheba have been unfairly portrayed as seductresses. Mary Magdalene has been wrongly labelled as a prostitute, and the Samaritan woman has been regarded as a loose woman. This article looks at the Samaritan woman from Sychar without negative prejudices. […]

  25. […] Jesus didn’t stop the Samaritan woman from telling the men of Sychar about Jesus (John 4:4-42). And, later, he expressly gave instructions to Mary Magdalene to tell his “brothers” the amazing message that he was alive (John 20:17-18). […]

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