Learning to thrive in the new life Jesus offers us – 2 Corinthians 5:16-17

Who was Chloe of Corinth?

Who was Chloe of Corinth?

This article is also available in Spanish here.

My brothers and sisters, those of Chloe have informed me that there are quarrels among you. What I mean is this: Each of you is saying, ‘I am of Paul’, and ‘I am of Apollos’, and ‘I am of Cephas’, and ‘I am of Christ’” (1 Cor. 1:11-12).

Chloe’s name appears just once in the New Testament—in First Corinthians; but from this one mention, as well as the issues addressed in the rest of the letter, we can piece together some ideas of who Chloe might have been. Was she a pagan or a Christian woman? Was she a concerned leader of a house church, or a quarrelsome leader of a faction?

Those of Chloe

Paul mentions Chloe’s name near the beginning of his letter (1 Cor. 1:11). Here he writes that he has been informed by people, who are somehow associated with Chloe, that there are rivalries or quarrels (erides) in the Corinthian church.

In the Greek text these informants are simply referred to as tōn chloēs, which can be translated literally as “those of Chloe”. The NASB and ESV translate this short phrase as “Chloe’s people”. However most English translations have added the word “household” and render this phrase “those of Chloe’s household” (e.g. NIV, NET, HCSB).

A few verses down, Paul mentions Stephanas of Corinth, but this time the apostle himself includes the word “household” (oikos) (1 Cor. 1:16). The insertion of the word “household” in verse 11, rather than aiding our understanding, may mask what Paul is saying about Chloe. Perhaps “those of Chloe” were one of the factions in Corinth. In the following verse Paul writes concerning the Corinthian Christians, “Now I mean this, that each of you is saying, ‘I am of Paul’, and ‘I am of Apollos’, and ‘I am of Cephas’, and ‘I am of Christ’” (1 Cor. 1:12 NASB). Perhaps the informants considered themselves as belonging to the faction “of Chloe” and were not simply members of her household.

On the other hand, the addition of the word “household” may indeed accurately convey Paul’s meaning.[1] If so, who was Chloe, and who or what was her “household”?

Was Chloe Pagan or Christian?

Historian Kate Cooper proposes two possibilities about who Chloe might have been. “The first is that she is a prosperous pagan householder, not herself a member of the Christian community but a figure of respect—or fear—in the lives of the Corinthian faithful. On this reading, the complainers in Chloe’s household are her slaves or servants.”[2]

Kate believes that because Chloe is not among those who are greeted in First Corinthians, Paul was not on friendly terms with her. If Chloe had been a Christian, rather than a pagan, “the fact that Paul mentions her without sending greetings or adding a word of praise constitutes quite a noticeable slight.” With this lack of greeting in mind, Kate’s second proposal is that Chloe might have been one of Paul’s rivals and that “those of Chloe were not happy about it”. Kate writes, “Perhaps some of her followers have gone behind her back to Paul, the absent founder of the community, with complaints about what is happening in her house.”[3]

I believe that the lack of a greeting may not have been an intentional slight and can be explained in another way. It is likely that First Corinthians is a composite letter, made up of three letters, each authentically written by Paul, and spliced together to form one letter.[4] This composite letter was then circulated among other churches. It could be that Paul did greet Chloe at the end or beginning of a letter, but that this portion ended up on the “cutting room floor”.[5]

Was Chloe Quarrelsome or Concerned?

I propose a third possibility for who Chloe of Corinth was. Like Stephanas and others mentioned in First Corinthians, I believe that it is most likely that Chloe was a house church leader,[6] and not necessarily one of the quarrelsome and factious ones. I think Chloe may have been concerned about some of the goings on in the Corinthian church, and so she sent a delegation to Paul asking for his advice and assistance.

Paul took the report given by Chloe’s people seriously and he wrote a letter in reply. Moreover, the report Paul had received may not have been just a verbal explanation of what was happening in Corinth; perhaps Chloe’s people also brought a letter written by Chloe to Paul. Much of First Corinthians was written in response to a letter which Paul occasionally quotes from. Did Chloe write this letter? Did Chloe write that some Corinthians were telling her, “Women should keep silent in the churches . . .”?[7]

For a fourth possibility of who Chloe may have been, read Richard Fellows’ credible remarks in the comments’ section below. Richard suggests that Chloe may have been an Ephesian rather than a Corinthian.

One thing is certain: Chloe was known to the Corinthian church, otherwise Paul would not have mentioned her by name. Moreover, “if Chloe’s household joined Paul’s group at the request of their mistress—in the same way as Lydia’s household did—then she is a person of standing among the faithful in Corinth.”

So, who is Chloe? Kate writes, “It is probably an unanswerable question, but sometimes an unanswerable question can be a useful tool.” I have found it useful to investigate who this first century woman may have been: it has helped me to understand the first century church at Corinth a little better. My hope is that you find my musings and Kate’s quotes on this subject useful too.

All quotes above are taken from chapter one, “Looking for Chloe”, in Kate Cooper’s book Band of Angels: The Forgotten World of Early Christian Women (New York: The Overlook Press, 2013) pp.1-20. The book can be purchased through Amazon here.


Endnotes

[1] Kate Cooper writes, “The Christian communities of the first few centuries have long been referred to as ‘house churches’ because during the early centuries when their group had no legal status and could not own institutional property, Christians met in one another’s homes. The importance of women in the early missions seems to have grown quite naturally out of their central position in households and families.”

[2] Like Chloe, several other women mentioned in the New Testament were householders who seem to be independent of a husband or father: Lydia, Nympha, the “chosen lady”, Martha, etc.

[3] If these informants were servants and slaves who were dependent on Chloe, it seems unlikely that they have had the temerity to go behind her back and risk losing her goodwill. Moreover, I doubt that Paul would expose them in his letter, and thus endanger them, by openly stating who the informers were.

[4] Larry Welborn proposes that there are three letters contained in First Corinthians. Letter A (1 Cor. 10:1-22; 6:12-20; 10:23-11:34) covers issues related to associating with immoral and idolatrous people.  Letter B (1 Cor. 7-9, 12-16) was written in response to a letter from the Corinthians. Larry refers to Letter C (1 Cor. 1:1-6:11) as “Counsel of Concord”. L. L. Welborn, “The Corinthian Correspondence” in All Things to All People: Paul among Jews, Greeks and Romans, Mark Harding and Alanna Nobbs (eds) (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013) 214.

[5] Larry Welborn notes that “the removal of prescripts and postscripts was standard practice in the making of a letter compilation.” Welborn, “The Corinthian Correspondence”, 214.

[6] In some of the larger cities such as Rome, Ephesus, and Corinth there were several house churches which were collectively called “the church at Rome” or “the church at Corinth” etc.  Kate writes, “There was no Church in antiquity, in the institutional sense. The movement was a patchwork of independent communities, and in the early years, the communication networks and leadership patterns were characterized by improvisation.” Towards the end of the first century, and into the next two centuries, however, each city’s house churches were overseen by an increasingly centralised and hierarchical leadership team of bishops, elders and deacons.

[7] Depending on what the correct interpretations of 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 and 1 Corinthians 14:34ff are, Chloe may have been concerned by some factions who were trying to restrict the ministry of women.

Image: Chloe is a Greek word which means “green shoot”.


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The First Century Church and the Ministry of Women
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Paul and Women, in a Nutshell
Interpretations and Applications of 1 Corinthians 14:34-35
The Chiasm in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 
7 Lessons in Ministry from the Ministry of Stephanas

Posted April 26th, 2015 . Categories/Tags: Bible Women, Equality and Gender Issues, Women in Ministry, , , ,

Unkind, judgemental, bizarre, and off-topic comments will be deleted.

24 comments on “Who was Chloe of Corinth?

  1. Olga Lucia Alvarez says:

    Excelente articulo como los demás. Gracias por el buen trabajo que haces y la forma como nos ayudas a acercarnos a la Biblia.
    Bendiciones.

  2. It is more likely that Chloe was from Ephesus. Chloe’s people had informed against the Corinthian church, so it would have been undiplomatic for Paul to reveal their identity if they were part of the Corinthian church.

    There is no evidence of house churches in Corinth.

    1 Cor is not a composite.

    • Marg says:

      Ah, so you think that Chloe’s people had travelled to Corinth for business or some other reason, and then brought back a bad report to Paul who was in Ephesus at the time. That’s interesting, and plausible.

      In that case, I wonder at Paul “outing” his informants. There seems to have been bit of travelling going on by members of Pauline churches. Stephanas and his buddies (or slaves) had travelled from Corinth to Ephesus. I wonder how he would have felt meeting Chloe’s people if they had ratted on the Corinthians. Instead, I imagine that Paul mentions Chloe to validate her and her concerns, and that she was a Corinthian.

      The composite idea helps to make sense of (among other things) the sometimes conflicting advice and instructions that keep popping up in First Corinthians about eating meat sacrificed to idols (1 Cor. 8:4-13; cf 1 Cor. 10:14-22, 25-28). The differing advice may reflect slightly different problems that developed surrounding this issue.

      • Yes, I imagine that Chloe’s people had travelled to Corinth on business. Paul mentions them perhaps to shame the Corinthians by pointing out that even outsiders are aware of their divisions. There may be a similar thing going on in 1 Cor 5:1.

        It is quite possible, or even likely, that Stephanas shared the concerns that Chloe’s people reported. Paul gives a strong endorsement of Stepanas’s household so we should probably assume that Paul and Stephanas were on the same page. Paul puts a positive gloss on Stephanas’s report, perhaps for diplomatic reasons. In any case, in 2 Cor Paul puts a positive gloss on Titus’s report and this seems to be to avoid jeopardizing Titus’s relationship with the Corinthians. This explains the difference in tone between 2 Cor 7 and 2 Cor 10-13. We do not need to partition 2 Cor, let alone 1 Cor.

        • Marg says:

          Thanks Richard. I appreciate your input. I’ve added a line in the Chloe post to direct readers to your comments.

          I find the partitioning of 2 Corinthians, and Philippians, quite helpful. (It is not especially helpful in 1 Cor.) But this is a minor matter that I hold loosely and am happy to disagree on.

          Like you, I am interested in Paul’s coworkers, especially his female coworkers. I have read your blog in the past, and am happy to “meet” you now on mine.

  3. […] [2] It is likely that Fortunatus and Achaicus were slaves of Stephanas, his sons, or freedmen that worked for him.  There is a slight possibility, however, that Fortunatus and Archaicus were those who had been sent by Chloe with a report for Paul (1 Cor 1:11).  Chloe appears to have been the mistress of her own household, as Stephanas was the master of his own household (1 Cor 1:16; 16:15).  Chloe may have also been a house church leader and minister in Corinth like Stephanas. [More on Chloe here.] […]

  4. […] Other New Testament women who hosted church meetings in their homes include Mary of Jerusalem (Acts 12:12), Lydia (Acts 16:40), the Chosen Lady (2 John 1), and possibly Chloe of Corinth (1 Cor. 1:11), etc. […]

  5. Robin Cohn says:

    Thanks for letting me know about Kate Cooper’s book. That goes on my to be read list!

    • Marg says:

      Hi Robin, I’m enjoying Kate’s book. She has some interesting perspectives that are new to me.

      Even though she is scholar, the book is written for a broad audience, including people who know nothing about the context of the first century church.

      There’s quite a long preface, but it’s one you won’t want to skip or read lightly.

      Chapter 3 on the Galilean women was thought provoking and heart warming. I’m up to chapter 4 which is on Thecla at the moment. I hope to write something about her one day. But right now I need to catch up on uni work.

  6. […] Who Was Chloe of Corinth? by Margaret Mowczko […]

  7. […] One woman who may have ministered in the church at Corinth was Chloe. In the opening chapter of 1 Corinthians, Paul writes that he has learnt that there are problems and factions within the Corinthian church from some people who had come from Chloe (1 Cor 1:11).[24] These people somehow belonged to Chloe. They may have been members of her household, or members of her church, or perhaps both. […]

  8. […] Paul wrote 1 Corinthians in response to a report possibly sent by a woman called Chloe (1 Cor 1:10-11). Some people from Chloe had told Paul about the divisions and rivalries in the Corinthian church.[10] These people may have been Chloe’s slaves or they may have been members of her house church, or perhaps both. It is possible that the letter that Paul quotes from in 1 Corinthians was written by Chloe as a concerned leader. […]

  9. […] The following first century women are all ministers and church leaders mentioned in the New Testament: Philip’s daughters (Acts 21:9), Priscilla (Acts 18:26; Rom. 16:3-5, etc), Phoebe (Rom. 16:1-2), Junia (Rom. 16:7), possibly Chloe (1 Cor. 1:11), Euodia and Syntyche (Phil. 4:2-3), Nympha (Col. 4:15), Apphia (Phlm. 2), “the chosen lady” (2 John 1), “the chosen sister” (2 John 13), and possibly Lydia (Acts 16:40), etc. […]

  10. […] It is likely that some of Chloe’s and Stephanas’ households were slaves (1 Cor. 1:11, 16; 16:15-18). But there were probably several (many?) other slaves in the Corinthian church (as in other churches), including slaves with non-Christian masters (cf Eph. 6:6-8; Col 3:22-25; Tit. 2:9-10; 1 Pet. 2:18-25).[…]

  11. […] The New Testament identifies several women who were householders: Mary of Jerusalem, Lydia in Philippi, Prisca with Aquila, Chloe of Corinth, Nympha of Laodicea, and the Chosen Lady in Asia Minor, etc. These women, some of whom may have been independently wealthy widows, would have exercised leadership within their own households, managing the running of their homes and home-based businesses and industries. They maintained their position when they hosted church meetings in their homes, especially as most of the church members would have included their family members, slaves, and clients.[2] […]

  12. […] Priscilla (with her husband Aquila) (Acts 18:26; Rom. 16:3-5, etc), possibly Chloe (1 Cor. 1:11), Nympha (Col. 4:15), Apphia (with Philemon and Archippus) (Philm 1:2), as well as “the chosen lady” (2 John 1:1, 5) and “the chosen sister” (2 John 1:13), may have been house church leaders. […]

  13. […] 7. Who was Chloe of Corinth? […]

  14. […] Several New Testament women hosted, cared for, and/or led house churches: Nympha, the Chosen Lady, Priscilla with Aquila, and possibly Euodia and Syntyche, Chloe, and Lydia. […]

  15. Annette Gardner says:

    During Paul’s missionary journeys, he came to a place where the men had been sent away to war and there were no one to manage the church business and conduct service but women. Paul appointed a woman to manage and be in charge. Who was that woman? I need this info to present to the congregation because there are so many people against women preachers.

    • Marg says:

      Hi Annette,

      Compared with the previous century, there were only a few outright wars in the Roman Empire in the first century AD. Certainly many men were Roman soldiers, but they didn’t leave towns undefended and deserted. Roman soldiers were everywhere in the Empire. And many soldiers who had completed active duty lived in Roman colonies such as Corinth and Philippi.

      I have not come across any evidence that a woman was put in charge of a church because there were no men. Most New Testament letters, and post-apostolic letters, written to first and second century congregations mention men as ministers. Several letters also mention women as ministers.

      I don’t know of any ancient document that plainly mentions that Paul appointed a woman to be in charge. However, Paul does mention women like Phoebe (Romans 16:1-2), Priscilla, with her husband Aquila, Nympha (Col. 4:15), and Euodia and Syntyche (Phil. 4:2-3) as being ministers, without saying who appointed them. Some of these women may well have been in charge of the network of house churches in their town. Or they may have simply hosted and led one of the house churches.

      Paul may have left the Ephesian church in the hands of Priscilla and Aquila, but this is not plainly mentioned. (see Acts 18:18-27.) More on Priscilla here: http://newlife.id.au/tag/priscilla/

      Lydia was probably the first person in charge of the church at Philippi once Paul and Silas moved on (Acts 16). (She is the only Philippian named in Acts 16.) Perhaps you are thinking of her. Lydia was a Jewish convert, and there may not have been many Jewish men in Philippi, but there were plenty of other men. More about Lydia here: http://newlife.id.au/tag/lydia/

      I’m sorry that there are many people in your congregation who are against women preachers. That is very disappointing. I wish you the very best as you reason with them.

      Blessings!

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